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Energies 2015, 8(12), 13811-13828; doi:10.3390/en81212395

A Lossy Counting-Based State of Charge Estimation Method and Its Application to Electric Vehicles

1,2,* and 2,3
School of Mechanical and Vehicular Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing 100192, China
Mechanical Electical Engineering School, Beijing Information Science & Technology University, Beijing 100192, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Omar Hegazy
Received: 13 May 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 25 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles and Hybrid Vehicles)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1570 KB, uploaded 4 December 2015]   |  


Estimating the residual capacity or state-of-charge (SoC) of commercial batteries on-line without destroying them or interrupting the power supply, is quite a challenging task for electric vehicle (EV) designers. Many Coulomb counting-based methods have been used to calculate the remaining capacity in EV batteries or other portable devices. The main disadvantages of these methods are the cumulative error and the time-varying Coulombic efficiency, which are greatly influenced by the operating state (SoC, temperature and current). To deal with this problem, we propose a lossy counting-based Coulomb counting method for estimating the available capacity or SoC. The initial capacity of the tested battery is obtained from the open circuit voltage (OCV). The charging/discharging efficiencies, used for compensating the Coulombic losses, are calculated by the lossy counting-based method. The measurement drift, resulting from the current sensor, is amended with the distorted Coulombic efficiency matrix. Simulations and experimental results show that the proposed method is both effective and convenient. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery management systems (BMS); state of charge (SoC); Coulombic efficiency; lossy counting method (LC) battery management systems (BMS); state of charge (SoC); Coulombic efficiency; lossy counting method (LC)

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, H.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Y. A Lossy Counting-Based State of Charge Estimation Method and Its Application to Electric Vehicles. Energies 2015, 8, 13811-13828.

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