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Energies 2014, 7(5), 2897-2937; doi:10.3390/en7052897

Battery Management System—Balancing Modularization Based on a Single Switched Capacitor and Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter with the Auxiliary Battery

Department of Electrical Engineering and Energy Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussel 1050, Belgium
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Received: 27 March 2014 / Revised: 16 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Energy Storage—Battery and Capacitor)

Abstract

Lithium-based batteries are considered as the most advanced batteries technology, which can be designed for high energy or high power storage systems. However, the battery cells are never fully identical due to the fabrication process, surrounding environment factors and differences between the cells tend to grow if no measures are taken. In order to have a high performance battery system, the battery cells should be continuously balanced for maintain the variation between the cells as small as possible. Without an appropriate balancing system, the individual cell voltages will differ over time and battery system capacity will decrease quickly. These issues will limit the electric range of the electric vehicle (EV) and some cells will undergo higher stress, whereby the cycle life of these cells will be shorter. Quite a lot of cell balancing/equalization topologies have been previously proposed. These balancing topologies can be categorized into passive and active balancing. Active topologies are categorized according to the active element used for storing the energy such as capacitor and/or inductive component as well as controlling switches or converters. This paper proposes an intelligent battery management system (BMS) including a battery pack charging and discharging control with a battery pack thermal management system. The BMS user input/output interfacing. The battery balancing system is based on battery pack modularization architecture. The proposed modularized balancing system has different equalization systems that operate inside and outside the modules. Innovative single switched capacitor (SSC) control strategy is proposed to balance between the battery cells in the module (inside module balancing, IMB). Novel utilization of isolated bidirectional DC/DC converter (IBC) is proposed to balance between the modules with the aid of the EV auxiliary battery (AB). Finally an experimental step-up has been implemented for the validation of the proposed balancing system. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery management system (BMS); single switched capacitor (SSC); isolated bidirectional DC/DC converter (IBC); cell equalization; battery balancing; MATLAB/Simulink battery management system (BMS); single switched capacitor (SSC); isolated bidirectional DC/DC converter (IBC); cell equalization; battery balancing; MATLAB/Simulink
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Daowd, M.; Antoine, M.; Omar, N.; Lataire, P.; Van Den Bossche, P.; Van Mierlo, J. Battery Management System—Balancing Modularization Based on a Single Switched Capacitor and Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter with the Auxiliary Battery. Energies 2014, 7, 2897-2937.

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