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Energies 2014, 7(5), 2761-2779; doi:10.3390/en7052761
Article

Crude Oil Spot Price Forecasting Based on Multiple Crude Oil Markets and Timeframes

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Received: 24 February 2014; in revised form: 31 March 2014 / Accepted: 21 April 2014 / Published: 25 April 2014
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Abstract: This study proposes a multiple kernel learning (MKL)-based regression model for crude oil spot price forecasting and trading. We used a well-known trend-following technical analysis indicator, the moving average convergence and divergence (MACD) indicator, for extracting features from original spot prices. Additionally, we factored in the possibility that movements of target crude oil prices may be related to other important crude oil markets besides the target market for the prediction time horizon since traders may find price movement information within other relevant crude oil markets useful. We also considered multiple timeframes in this study since trends may differ across different timeframes and, in fact, traders may use their own timeframes. Therefore, for forecasting target crude oil prices, this study emphasizes on features pertaining to other important crude oil markets and different timeframes in addition to features of the target crude oil market and target timeframe. Moreover, the MKL framework has been used to fuse information extracted from different sources and timeframes of the same data source. Experimental results show that out-of-sample forecasting using the MKL method is superior to benchmark methods in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) and average percentage profit (APP). They also show that the information from multiple timeframes is useful for prediction, but that from another crude oil market is not.
Keywords: crude oil forecasting; multiple kernel learning; MACD indicator; crude oil futures trade; crude oil markets crude oil forecasting; multiple kernel learning; MACD indicator; crude oil futures trade; crude oil markets
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Deng, S.; Sakurai, A. Crude Oil Spot Price Forecasting Based on Multiple Crude Oil Markets and Timeframes. Energies 2014, 7, 2761-2779.

AMA Style

Deng S, Sakurai A. Crude Oil Spot Price Forecasting Based on Multiple Crude Oil Markets and Timeframes. Energies. 2014; 7(5):2761-2779.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deng, Shangkun; Sakurai, Akito. 2014. "Crude Oil Spot Price Forecasting Based on Multiple Crude Oil Markets and Timeframes." Energies 7, no. 5: 2761-2779.


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