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Energies 2014, 7(3), 1770-1791; doi:10.3390/en7031770
Article

Localized Climate and Surface Energy Flux Alterations across an Urban Gradient in the Central U.S.

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Received: 3 January 2014; in revised form: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)
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Abstract: Long-term urban and rural climate data spanning January 1995 through October 2013 were analyzed to investigate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in a representative mid-sized city of the central US. Locally distributed climate data were also collected at nested low density urban, recently developed, and high density urban monitoring sites from June through September 2013 to improve mechanistic understanding of spatial variability of the UHI effect based upon urban land use intensity. Long-term analyses (1995–2013) indicate significant differences (p < 0.001) between average air temperature (13.47 and 12.89 °C, at the urban and rural site respectively), relative humidity (69.11% and 72.51%, urban and rural respectively), and average wind speed (2.05 and 3.15 m/s urban and rural respectively). Significant differences (p < 0.001) between urban monitoring sites indicate an urban microclimate gradient for all climate variables except precipitation. Results of analysis of net radiation and soil heat flux data suggest distinct localized alterations in urban energy budgets due to land use intensity. Study results hold important implications for urban planners and land managers seeking to improve and implement better urban management practices. Results also reinforce the need for distributed urban energy balance investigations.
Keywords: urban heat island; microclimate; surface energy balance; land use; resilience urban heat island; microclimate; surface energy balance; land use; resilience
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hubbart, J.A.; Kellner, E.; Hooper, L.; Lupo, A.R.; Market, P.S.; Guinan, P.E.; Stephan, K.; Fox, N.I.; Svoma, B.M. Localized Climate and Surface Energy Flux Alterations across an Urban Gradient in the Central U.S.. Energies 2014, 7, 1770-1791.

AMA Style

Hubbart JA, Kellner E, Hooper L, Lupo AR, Market PS, Guinan PE, Stephan K, Fox NI, Svoma BM. Localized Climate and Surface Energy Flux Alterations across an Urban Gradient in the Central U.S.. Energies. 2014; 7(3):1770-1791.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hubbart, Jason A.; Kellner, Elliott; Hooper, Lynne; Lupo, Anthony R.; Market, Patrick S.; Guinan, Patrick E.; Stephan, Kirsten; Fox, Neil I.; Svoma, Bohumil M. 2014. "Localized Climate and Surface Energy Flux Alterations across an Urban Gradient in the Central U.S.." Energies 7, no. 3: 1770-1791.


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