Localized Climate and Surface Energy Flux Alterations across an Urban Gradient in the Central U.S.
AbstractLong-term urban and rural climate data spanning January 1995 through October 2013 were analyzed to investigate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in a representative mid-sized city of the central US. Locally distributed climate data were also collected at nested low density urban, recently developed, and high density urban monitoring sites from June through September 2013 to improve mechanistic understanding of spatial variability of the UHI effect based upon urban land use intensity. Long-term analyses (1995–2013) indicate significant differences (p < 0.001) between average air temperature (13.47 and 12.89 °C, at the urban and rural site respectively), relative humidity (69.11% and 72.51%, urban and rural respectively), and average wind speed (2.05 and 3.15 m/s urban and rural respectively). Significant differences (p < 0.001) between urban monitoring sites indicate an urban microclimate gradient for all climate variables except precipitation. Results of analysis of net radiation and soil heat flux data suggest distinct localized alterations in urban energy budgets due to land use intensity. Study results hold important implications for urban planners and land managers seeking to improve and implement better urban management practices. Results also reinforce the need for distributed urban energy balance investigations.
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Hubbart, J.A.; Kellner, E.; Hooper, L.; Lupo, A.R.; Market, P.S.; Guinan, P.E.; Stephan, K.; Fox, N.I.; Svoma, B.M. Localized Climate and Surface Energy Flux Alterations across an Urban Gradient in the Central U.S.. Energies 2014, 7, 1770-1791.
Hubbart JA, Kellner E, Hooper L, Lupo AR, Market PS, Guinan PE, Stephan K, Fox NI, Svoma BM. Localized Climate and Surface Energy Flux Alterations across an Urban Gradient in the Central U.S.. Energies. 2014; 7(3):1770-1791.Chicago/Turabian Style
Hubbart, Jason A.; Kellner, Elliott; Hooper, Lynne; Lupo, Anthony R.; Market, Patrick S.; Guinan, Patrick E.; Stephan, Kirsten; Fox, Neil I.; Svoma, Bohumil M. 2014. "Localized Climate and Surface Energy Flux Alterations across an Urban Gradient in the Central U.S.." Energies 7, no. 3: 1770-1791.