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Wave Basin Experiments with Large Wave Energy Converter Arrays to Study Interactions between the Converters and Effects on Other Users in the Sea and the Coastal Area
Department of Civil Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 904, Zwijnaarde B-9052, Belgium
School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Institute for Energy Systems, School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, UK
Wave Energy Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9000, Denmark
School of Planning, Architecture & Civil Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AG, Northern Ireland, UK
Saint-Venant Laboratory for Hydraulics, EDF-Recherche et Développement, Laboratoire Saint-Venant (EDF R&D, CETMEF, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech), Chatou 78401, France
Ocean Energy and Ocean Waves Group, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, LHEAA Lab-CNRS UMR6598: Hydrodynamics, Energetics, Atmospheric Environment, Nantes 44321, France
Ports and Offshore Technology, DHI, Agern Allé 5, Hørsholm DK-2970, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2013; in revised form: 18 January 2014 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 12 February 2014
Abstract: Experiments have been performed in the Shallow Water Wave Basin of DHI (Hørsholm, Denmark), on large arrays of up to 25 heaving point absorber type Wave Energy Converters (WECs), for a range of geometric layout configurations and wave conditions. WEC response and modifications of the wave field are measured to provide data for understanding WEC array interactions and to evaluate array interaction numerical models. Each WEC consists of a buoy with a diameter of 0.315 m and power take-off (PTO) is modeled by realizing friction based energy dissipation through damping of the WEC’s motion. Wave gauges are located within and around the WEC array. Wave conditions studied include regular, polychromatic, long- and short-crested irregular waves. A rectilinear arrangement of WEC support structures is employed such that several array configurations can be studied. In this paper, the experimental arrangement and the obtained database are presented. Also, results for wave height attenuation downwave a rectilinear array of 25 heaving WECs are presented, for the case of irregular waves. Up to 16.3% and 18.1% (long-crested) and 11.2% and 18.1% (short-crested waves) reduction in significant wave height is observed downwave the WEC array, for the radiated wave field only and for the combination of incident-diffracted-radiated (perturbed) wave field, respectively. Using spectra at different locations within and around the array, the wave field modifications are presented and discussed.
Keywords: wave energy converters; wave energy; wave basin experiments; WEC arrays/farms/parks; point absorber; DHI shallow water wave Basin; WECwakes project; HYDRALAB IV EU FP7 programme
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Stratigaki, V.; Troch, P.; Stallard, T.; Forehand, D.; Kofoed, J.P.; Folley, M.; Benoit, M.; Babarit, A.; Kirkegaard, J. Wave Basin Experiments with Large Wave Energy Converter Arrays to Study Interactions between the Converters and Effects on Other Users in the Sea and the Coastal Area. Energies 2014, 7, 701-734.
Stratigaki V, Troch P, Stallard T, Forehand D, Kofoed JP, Folley M, Benoit M, Babarit A, Kirkegaard J. Wave Basin Experiments with Large Wave Energy Converter Arrays to Study Interactions between the Converters and Effects on Other Users in the Sea and the Coastal Area. Energies. 2014; 7(2):701-734.
Stratigaki, Vasiliki; Troch, Peter; Stallard, Tim; Forehand, David; Kofoed, Jens P.; Folley, Matt; Benoit, Michel; Babarit, Aurélien; Kirkegaard, Jens. 2014. "Wave Basin Experiments with Large Wave Energy Converter Arrays to Study Interactions between the Converters and Effects on Other Users in the Sea and the Coastal Area." Energies 7, no. 2: 701-734.