Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Factors Affecting Alkaline Sodium Silicate Gelation for In-Depth Reservoir Profile Modification
Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, Stavanger 4036, Norway
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 October 2013; in revised form: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Abstract: Alkaline sodium silicate (Na-silicate) is environment-friendly and possesses water-like viscosity during the injection stage for in-depth reservoir treatment to enhance sweep efficiency. Gel setting time (tg) and gel strength are interrelated. Factors that accelerate tg are Na-silicate content (wt%), low pH, presence of divalent ions and temperature. Pressure drop across the gel accelerates syneresis; however, the gel appeared to remain intact. Presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions is shown to increase gel strength. With a Na-silicate content of 4.5 wt%, for example, at a pH of 10.3 and a temperature of 20 °C, gel strength almost tripled and was reached about eight times faster at the combined tested concentration of 0.009 M, based on the average effect from the coexistence of both ions. Low-salinity water (LSW) has an ion composition of 25-fold diluted seawater, did not show precipitation, and could accordingly be a candidate for a pre-flush before the injection of a Na-silicate solution in the event of a field application. This is important since LSW for enhancing oil recovery is a popular method in oil industry. A suggested predictive tool (simple graphical method) to estimate the effect of different factors on gelation time and gel strength is presented.
Keywords: sodium silicate; viscosity; gelation time; gel strength; shrinkage; sweep efficiency; pH; temperature; divalent ions
Article StatisticsClick here to load and display the download statistics.
Notes: Multiple requests from the same IP address are counted as one view.
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Hamouda, A.A.; Amiri, H.A.A. Factors Affecting Alkaline Sodium Silicate Gelation for In-Depth Reservoir Profile Modification. Energies 2014, 7, 568-590.
Hamouda AA, Amiri HAA. Factors Affecting Alkaline Sodium Silicate Gelation for In-Depth Reservoir Profile Modification. Energies. 2014; 7(2):568-590.
Hamouda, Aly A.; Amiri, Hossien A.A. 2014. "Factors Affecting Alkaline Sodium Silicate Gelation for In-Depth Reservoir Profile Modification." Energies 7, no. 2: 568-590.