Next Article in Journal
Design and Implement a Digital H∞ Robust Controller for a MW-Class PMSG-Based Grid-Interactive Wind Energy Conversion System
Previous Article in Journal
Optimizing the Production of Biodiesel Using Lipase Entrapped in Biomimetic Silica
Energies 2013, 6(4), 2065-2083; doi:10.3390/en6042065
Article

Estimating Energy- and Eco-Balances for Continuous Bio-Ethanol Production Using a Blenke Cascade System

1,2,* , 1
, 2
 and 2
Received: 29 January 2013; in revised form: 29 March 2013 / Accepted: 29 March 2013 / Published: 11 April 2013
Download PDF [468 KB, uploaded 11 April 2013]
Abstract: Energy and environmental effects of wheat-based fuel, produced continuously by a Blenke cascade system, were assessed. Two scenarios: (1) no-co-products utilization scenario; and (2) co-products utilization scenario, were compared. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model was used for analysis. The scope covered a cradle-to-gate inventory. The results from energy analysis showed, that wheat-based ethanol has a positive average net energy value (NEV), NEV = 3.35 MJ/kg ethanol with an average net energy ratio (NER), NER = 1.14 MJ/MJ fossils for scenario 1, while for scenario 2, NEV = 20 MJ/kg ethanol with NER = 3.94 MJ/MJ fossils. The environmental performance analysis indicated that in scenario 1, the strongest contribution to environmental impacts was from the ethanol conversion stage; whereas in scenario 2, it was from wheat production stage. The use of a continuous fermentation system based on Blenke cascade is a promising technology that increases wheat based bio-ethanol’s energy benefits. In addition, the calculated parameters show the potential to significantly reduce emissions level.
Keywords: bio-ethanol; Blenke cascade system; life-cycle assessment; wheat; scenarios bio-ethanol; Blenke cascade system; life-cycle assessment; wheat; scenarios
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Ntihuga, J.N.; Senn, T.; Gschwind, P.; Kohlus, R. Estimating Energy- and Eco-Balances for Continuous Bio-Ethanol Production Using a Blenke Cascade System. Energies 2013, 6, 2065-2083.

AMA Style

Ntihuga JN, Senn T, Gschwind P, Kohlus R. Estimating Energy- and Eco-Balances for Continuous Bio-Ethanol Production Using a Blenke Cascade System. Energies. 2013; 6(4):2065-2083.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ntihuga, Jean N.; Senn, Thomas; Gschwind, Peter; Kohlus, Reinhard. 2013. "Estimating Energy- and Eco-Balances for Continuous Bio-Ethanol Production Using a Blenke Cascade System." Energies 6, no. 4: 2065-2083.


Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert