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Energies 2012, 5(8), 2952-2988; doi:10.3390/en5082952

Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles—Assessment of Electrical Characteristics

Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussel, 1050, Belgium
Erasmus University College, Nijverheidskaai 170, Brussel, 1070, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 April 2012 / Revised: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 July 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle to Grid)


In this paper, the performances of various lithium-ion chemistries for use in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have been investigated and compared to several other rechargeable energy storage systems technologies such as lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and electrical-double layer capacitors. The analysis has shown the beneficial properties of lithium-ion in the terms of energy density, power density and rate capabilities. Particularly, the nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathode stands out with the high energy density up to 160 Wh/kg, compared to 70–110, 90 and 71 Wh/kg for lithium iron phosphate cathode, lithium nickel cobalt aluminum cathode and, lithium titanate oxide anode battery cells, respectively. These values are considerably higher than the lead-acid (23–28 Wh/kg) and nickel-metal hydride (44–53 Wh/kg) battery technologies. The dynamic discharge performance test shows that the energy efficiency of the lithium-ion batteries is significantly higher than the lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride technologies. The efficiency varies between 86% and 98%, with the best values obtained by pouch battery cells, ahead of cylindrical and prismatic battery design concepts. Also the power capacity of lithium-ion technology is superior compared to other technologies. The power density is in the range of 300–2400 W/kg against 200–400 and 90–120 W/kg for lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride, respectively. However, considering the influence of energy efficiency, the power density is in the range of 100–1150 W/kg. Lithium-ion batteries optimized for high energy are at the lower end of this range and are challenged to meet the United States Advanced Battery Consortium, SuperLIB and Massachusetts Institute of Technology goals. Their association with electric-double layer capacitors, which have low energy density (4–6 Wh/kg) but outstanding power capabilities, could be very interesting. The study of the rate capability of the lithium-ion batteries has allowed for a new state of charge estimation, encompassing all essential performance parameters. The rate capabilities tests are reflected by Peukert constants, which are significantly lower for lithium-ion batteries than for nickel-metal hydride and lead-acid. Furthermore, rate capabilities during charging have been investigated. Lithium-ion batteries are able to store about 80% of the capacity at current rate 2It, with high power cells accepting over 90%. At higher charging rates of 5It or more, the internal resistance impedes charge acceptance by high energy cells. The lithium titanate anode, due to its high surface area (100 m2/g compared to 3 m2/g for the graphite based anode) performs much better in this respect. The behavior of lithium-ion batteries has been investigated at different conditions. The analysis has leaded us to a new lithium ion battery model. This model will be compared to existing battery models in future research contributions. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium-ion batteries; energy density; rate capabilities; power density; performance tests; HPPC-test; battery model lithium-ion batteries; energy density; rate capabilities; power density; performance tests; HPPC-test; battery model

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Omar, N.; Daowd, M.; Bossche, P.; Hegazy, O.; Smekens, J.; Coosemans, T.; Mierlo, J. Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles—Assessment of Electrical Characteristics. Energies 2012, 5, 2952-2988.

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