Energies 2012, 5(6), 1943-1981; doi:10.3390/en5061943

Comprehensive Evaluation of Algal Biofuel Production: Experimental and Target Results

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Received: 9 March 2012; in revised form: 30 May 2012 / Accepted: 5 June 2012 / Published: 20 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel)
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Abstract: Worldwide, algal biofuel research and development efforts have focused on increasing the competitiveness of algal biofuels by increasing the energy and financial return on investments, reducing water intensity and resource requirements, and increasing algal productivity. In this study, analyses are presented in each of these areas—costs, resource needs, and productivity—for two cases: (1) an Experimental Case, using mostly measured data for a lab-scale system, and (2) a theorized Highly Productive Case that represents an optimized commercial-scale production system, albeit one that relies on full-price water, nutrients, and carbon dioxide. For both cases, the analysis described herein concludes that the energy and financial return on investments are less than 1, the water intensity is greater than that for conventional fuels, and the amounts of required resources at a meaningful scale of production amount to significant fractions of current consumption (e.g., nitrogen). The analysis and presentation of results highlight critical areas for advancement and innovation that must occur for sustainable and profitable algal biofuel production can occur at a scale that yields significant petroleum displacement. To this end, targets for energy consumption, production cost, water consumption, and nutrient consumption are presented that would promote sustainable algal biofuel production. Furthermore, this work demonstrates a procedure and method by which subsequent advances in technology and biotechnology can be framed to track progress.
Keywords: algae; biofuel; energy return on investment; financial return on investment; water intensity; resource constraints; biodiesel; renewable diesel; biogas
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Beal, C.M.; Hebner, R.E.; Webber, M.E.; Ruoff, R.S.; Seibert, A.F.; King, C.W. Comprehensive Evaluation of Algal Biofuel Production: Experimental and Target Results. Energies 2012, 5, 1943-1981.

AMA Style

Beal CM, Hebner RE, Webber ME, Ruoff RS, Seibert AF, King CW. Comprehensive Evaluation of Algal Biofuel Production: Experimental and Target Results. Energies. 2012; 5(6):1943-1981.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beal, Colin M.; Hebner, Robert E.; Webber, Michael E.; Ruoff, Rodney S.; Seibert, A. Frank; King, Carey W. 2012. "Comprehensive Evaluation of Algal Biofuel Production: Experimental and Target Results." Energies 5, no. 6: 1943-1981.

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