Energies 2012, 5(3), 561-576; doi:10.3390/en5030561
Article

Optimization of Agitation and Aeration for Very High Gravity Ethanol Fermentation from Sweet Sorghum Juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using an Orthogonal Array Design

1 Graduate School, Khon Kaen University (KKU), Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand 2 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University (KKU), Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand 3 Fermentation Research Center for Value Added Agricultural Products (FerVAAP), Khon Kaen University (KKU), Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand 4 Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University (KKU), Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand 5 Center for Alternative Energy Research and Development (AERD), Khon Kaen University (KKU), Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 December 2011; in revised form: 21 February 2012 / Accepted: 24 February 2012 / Published: 29 February 2012
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Abstract: Optimization of three parameters: agitation rate (A; 100, 200 and 300 rpm), aeration rate (B; 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 vvm) and aeration timing (C; 2, 4 and 6 h), for ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice under very high gravity (VHG, 290 g L−1 of total sugar) conditions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP 01 was attempted using an L9 (34) orthogonal array design. The fermentation was carried out at 30 °C in a 2-L bioreactor and the initial yeast cell concentration was approximately 2 × 107 cells mL−1. The results showed that the optimum condition for ethanol fermentation should be A2B3C2 corresponding to agitation rate, 200 rpm; aeration rate, 2.5 vvm and aeration timing, 4 h. The verification experiments under the optimum condition clearly indicated that the aeration and agitation strategies improved ethanol production. The ethanol concentration (P), productivity (Qp) and ethanol yield (Yp/s) were 132.82 ± 1.06 g L−1, 2.55 ± 0.00 g L−1h−1 and 0.50 ± 0.00, respectively. Under the same condition without aeration (agitation rate at 200 rpm), P and Qp were only 118.02 ± 1.19 g L−1 and 2.19 ± 0.04 g L−1h−1, respectively while Yp/s was not different from that under the optimum condition.
Keywords: aeration; agitation; ethanol fermentation; orthogonal array design; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; very high gravity

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MDPI and ACS Style

Khongsay, N.; Laopaiboon, L.; Jaisil, P.; Laopaiboon, P. Optimization of Agitation and Aeration for Very High Gravity Ethanol Fermentation from Sweet Sorghum Juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using an Orthogonal Array Design. Energies 2012, 5, 561-576.

AMA Style

Khongsay N, Laopaiboon L, Jaisil P, Laopaiboon P. Optimization of Agitation and Aeration for Very High Gravity Ethanol Fermentation from Sweet Sorghum Juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using an Orthogonal Array Design. Energies. 2012; 5(3):561-576.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khongsay, Naulchan; Laopaiboon, Lakkana; Jaisil, Prasit; Laopaiboon, Pattana. 2012. "Optimization of Agitation and Aeration for Very High Gravity Ethanol Fermentation from Sweet Sorghum Juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using an Orthogonal Array Design." Energies 5, no. 3: 561-576.

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