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A Review on Research on Replacement of CH4 in Natural Gas Hydrates by Use of CO2
Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
CNOOC Research Center, Beijing 100027, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 December 2011; in revised form: 6 February 2012 / Accepted: 8 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Abstract: This paper introduces the research advances on replacement of CH4 in Natural Gas Hydrates (NGHs) by use of CO2 and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the method on the natural gas production from such hydrates. Firstly, the feasibility of replacement is proven from the points of view of kinetics and thermodynamics, and confirmed by experiments. Then, the latest progress in CH4 replacement experiments with gaseous CO2, liquid CO2 and CO2 emulsion are presented Moreover, the superiority of CO2 emulsion for replacement of CH4 is emphasized. The latest experiment progress on preparation of CO2 emulsions are introduced. Finally, the advancements in simulation research on replacement is introduced, and the deficiencies of the simulations are pointed. The factors influencing on the replacement with different forms of CO2 are analyzed and the optimum conditions for the replacement of CH4 in hydrated with different forms of CO2 is suggested.
Keywords: gas hydrate; replacement; carbon dioxide; feasibility; emulsion; simulation
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MDPI and ACS Style
Zhao, J.; Xu, K.; Song, Y.; Liu, W.; Lam, W.; Liu, Y.; Xue, K.; Zhu, Y.; Yu, X.; Li, Q. A Review on Research on Replacement of CH4 in Natural Gas Hydrates by Use of CO2. Energies 2012, 5, 399-419.
Zhao J, Xu K, Song Y, Liu W, Lam W, Liu Y, Xue K, Zhu Y, Yu X, Li Q. A Review on Research on Replacement of CH4 in Natural Gas Hydrates by Use of CO2. Energies. 2012; 5(2):399-419.
Zhao, Jiafei; Xu, Kun; Song, Yongchen; Liu, Weiguo; Lam, Weihaur; Liu, Yu; Xue, Kaihua; Zhu, Yiming; Yu, Xichong; Li, Qingping. 2012. "A Review on Research on Replacement of CH4 in Natural Gas Hydrates by Use of CO2." Energies 5, no. 2: 399-419.