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Energies 2012, 5(12), 5418-5438; doi:10.3390/en5125418

Fuel-N Evolution during the Pyrolysis of Industrial Biomass Wastes with High Nitrogen Content

1,* , 2
3,*  and 1
1 Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, G5-8, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502, Japan 2 Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China 3 Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 September 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 14 December 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012
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In this study, sewage sludge and mycelial waste from antibiotic production were pyrolyzed in a batch scale fixed-bed reactor as examples of two kinds of typical industrial biomass wastes with high nitrogen content. A series of experiments were conducted on the rapid pyrolysis and the slow pyrolysis of these wastes in the temperature range from 500–800 °C to investigate the Fuel-N transformation behavior among pyrolysis products. The results showed that Fuel-N conversion to Char-N intimately depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the yield of Char-N reduced with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. Under the same pyrolysis conditions, Tar-N production mainly depended on complex properties of the different biomasses, including volatile matter, nitrogen content and biomass functional groups. HCN was the predominant NOx precursor in the rapid pyrolysis of biomass, whereas in the slow pyrolysis of mycelial waste, more NH3 was produced than HCN due to the additional NH3 formation through the hydrogenation reaction of Char-N, HCN and H radicals. At the same time, some part of the char was analyzed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to get more information on the nitrogen functionality changes and the tar was also characterized by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) to identify typical nitrogenous tar compounds. Finally, the whole nitrogen distribution in products was discussed.
Keywords: Fuel-N; industrial biomass wastes; pyrolysis; NOx precursors; Tar-N; Char-N Fuel-N; industrial biomass wastes; pyrolysis; NOx precursors; Tar-N; Char-N
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Chen, H.; Wang, Y.; Xu, G.; Yoshikawa, K. Fuel-N Evolution during the Pyrolysis of Industrial Biomass Wastes with High Nitrogen Content. Energies 2012, 5, 5418-5438.

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