Energies 2012, 5(12), 5372-5417; doi:10.3390/en5125372
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Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

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Received: 3 September 2012; in revised form: 31 October 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wood to Energy)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2)-rich synthesis gas (syngas) via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.
Keywords: biomass; gasification; synthesis gas; syngas; gas fermentation; biofuels; ethanol; butanol; wood-ljungdahl pathway; metabolic engineering; clostridium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Daniell, J.; Köpke, M.; Simpson, S.D. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation. Energies 2012, 5, 5372-5417.

AMA Style

Daniell J, Köpke M, Simpson SD. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation. Energies. 2012; 5(12):5372-5417.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Daniell, James; Köpke, Michael; Simpson, Séan D. 2012. "Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation." Energies 5, no. 12: 5372-5417.

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