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Energies 2012, 5(12), 5190-5197; doi:10.3390/en5125190
Article

Improved Cyclability of Liquid Electrolyte Lithium/Sulfur Batteries by Optimizing Electrolyte/Sulfur Ratio

Received: 19 November 2012 / Revised: 1 December 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 7 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
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Abstract

A liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cell is a liquid electrochemical system. In discharge, sulfur is first reduced to highly soluble Li2S8, which dissolves into the organic electrolyte and serves as the liquid cathode. In solution, lithium polysulfide (PS) undergoes a series of complicated disproportionations, whose chemical equilibriums vary with the PS concentration and affect the cell’s performance. Since the PS concentration relates to a certain electrolyte/sulfur (E/S) ratio, there is an optimized E/S ratio for the cyclability of each Li/S cell system. In this work, we study the optimized E/S ratio by measuring the cycling performance of Li/S cells, and propose an empirical method for determination of the optimized E/S ratio. By employing an electrolyte of 0.25 m LiSO3CF3-0.25 m LiNO3 dissolved in a 1:1 (wt:wt) mixture of dimethyl ether (DME) and 1,3-dioxolane (DOL) in an optimized E/S ratio, we show that the Li/S cell with a cathode containing 72% sulfur and 2 mg cm2 sulfur loading is able to retain a specific capacity of 780 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 mA cm−2 between 1.7 V and 2.8 V.
Keywords: lithium/sulfur battery; electrolyte; cyclability; polysulfide; redox shuttle lithium/sulfur battery; electrolyte; cyclability; polysulfide; redox shuttle
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Zhang, S.S. Improved Cyclability of Liquid Electrolyte Lithium/Sulfur Batteries by Optimizing Electrolyte/Sulfur Ratio. Energies 2012, 5, 5190-5197.

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