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Energies 2012, 5(10), 3928-3947; doi:10.3390/en5103928
Article

Some Chemical Compositional Changes in Miscanthus and White Oak Sawdust Samples during Torrefaction

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Received: 13 July 2012; Accepted: 19 September 2012 / Published: 16 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass and Biofuels 2012)
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Abstract: Torrefaction tests on miscanthus and white oak sawdust were conducted in a bubbling sand bed reactor to see the effect of temperature and residence time on the chemical composition. Process conditions for miscanthus and white oak sawdust were 250–350 °C for 30–120 min and 220–270 °C for 30 min, respectively. Torrefaction of miscanthus at 250 °C and a residence time of 30 min resulted in a significant decrease in moisture—about 82.68%—but the other components—hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and volatiles—changed only marginally. Increasing torrefaction temperatures to 350 °C with a residence time of 120 min further reduced the moisture content to 0.54%, with a significant decrease in the hydrogen, nitrogen, and volatiles by 58.29%, 14.28%, and 70.45%, respectively. Regression equations developed for the moisture, hydrogen, nitrogen, and volatile content of the samples with respect to torrefaction temperature and time have adequately described the changes in chemical composition based on R2 values of >0.82. Surface plots based on the regression equation indicate that torrefaction temperatures of 280–350 °C with residence times of 30–120 min can help reduce moisture, nitrogen, and volatile content from 1.13% to 0.6%, 0.27% to 0.23%, and 79% to 23%, with respect to initial values. Trends of chemical compositional changes in white oak sawdust are similar to miscanthus. Torrefaction temperatures of 270 °C and a 30 min residence time reduced the moisture, volatiles, hydrogen, and nitrogen content by about 79%, 17.88%, 20%, and 5.88%, respectively, whereas the carbon content increased by about 3.5%.
Keywords: miscanthus; white oak sawdust; torrefaction; temperature; time; chemical composition miscanthus; white oak sawdust; torrefaction; temperature; time; chemical composition
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tumuluru, J.S.; Boardman, R.D.; Wright, C.T.; Hess, J.R. Some Chemical Compositional Changes in Miscanthus and White Oak Sawdust Samples during Torrefaction. Energies 2012, 5, 3928-3947.

AMA Style

Tumuluru JS, Boardman RD, Wright CT, Hess JR. Some Chemical Compositional Changes in Miscanthus and White Oak Sawdust Samples during Torrefaction. Energies. 2012; 5(10):3928-3947.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tumuluru, Jaya S.; Boardman, Richard D.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, J. R. 2012. "Some Chemical Compositional Changes in Miscanthus and White Oak Sawdust Samples during Torrefaction." Energies 5, no. 10: 3928-3947.


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