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An Examination of AC/HVDC Power Circuits for Interconnecting Bulk Wind Generation with the Electric Grid
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin -Madison 1415 Engineering Dr. Madison WI 53706, USA
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Received: 15 April 2010; Accepted: 20 May 2010 / Published: 18 June 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy
Abstract: The application of high voltage dc (HVDC) transmission for integrating large scale and/or off-shore wind generation systems with the electric grid is attractive in comparison to extra high voltage (EHV) ac transmission due to a variety of reasons. While the technology of classical current sourced converters (CSC) using thyristors is well established for realization of large HVDC systems, the technology of voltage sourced converters (VSC) is emerging to be an alternative approach, particularly suitable for multi-terminal interconnections. More recently, a more modular scheme that may be termed ‘bridge of bridge’ converters (BoBC) has been introduced to realize HVDC systems. While all these three approaches are functionally capable of realizing HVDC systems, the converter power circuit design trade-offs between these alternatives are not readily apparent. This paper presents an examination of these topologies from the point of view of power semiconductor requirements, reactive component requirements, operating losses, fault tolerance, multi-terminal operation, modularity, complexity, etc. Detailed analytical models will be used along with a benchmark application to develop a comparative evaluation of the alternatives that maybe used by wind energy/bulk transmission developers for performing engineering trade-off studies.
Keywords: bulk transmission; HVDC; multi-terminal; offshore; wind farm; VSC; CSC; modular multilevel converter
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Ludois, D.; Venkataramanan, G. An Examination of AC/HVDC Power Circuits for Interconnecting Bulk Wind Generation with the Electric Grid. Energies 2010, 3, 1263-1289.
Ludois D, Venkataramanan G. An Examination of AC/HVDC Power Circuits for Interconnecting Bulk Wind Generation with the Electric Grid. Energies. 2010; 3(6):1263-1289.
Ludois, Daniel; Venkataramanan, Giri. 2010. "An Examination of AC/HVDC Power Circuits for Interconnecting Bulk Wind Generation with the Electric Grid." Energies 3, no. 6: 1263-1289.