Italian Experience on Electrical Storage Ageing for Primary Frequency Regulation
AbstractThe paper describes the results of different types of ageing tests performed by Terna (the Italian Transmission System Operator) applied to several electrochemical technologies, namely lithium-based and sodium-nickel chloride-based technologies. In particular, the tested lithium-based technologies exploit a graphite-based anode and the following cathode electrochemistries: lithium iron phosphate, lithium nickel cobalt aluminium, lithium nickel cobalt manganese, and lithium titanate. These tests have been performed in the storage labs located in Sardinia (Codrongianos) and Sicily (Ciminna). The aim of the storage labs is intended to give the electrical grid ancillary services, for example, primary frequency regulation, secondary frequency regulation, voltage regulation, synthetic rotational inertia provision, and many more. For the primary frequency regulation service, the ageing of the batteries is difficult to foresee as the ageing tests are not standardized. The authors proposed some novel cycle types, which showed that, in several cases, the frequency regulation cycle ages the batteries much more than the standard cycle. The standard cycle definition has been adopted in the paper to identify a battery cycle test that was carried out to uniformly compare and rank the different technologies. Moreover, sodium-nickel chloride batteries are unaffected by the types of cycle and have a negligible ageing. In addition, lithium manganese oxide and lithium titanate batteries show very good behaviour with a slight degradation of the dischargeable energy, irrespectively of the type of cycle. Inversely, lithium nickel cobalt aluminium technology shows a considerable ageing and a strong dependence on the cycle types. Even if the theoretical explanations of such aging behaviours need time to be understood and expounded, the authors are convinced that the scientific community should become aware of these experimental results. View Full-Text
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Benato, R.; Dambone Sessa, S.; Musio, M.; Palone, F.; Polito, R.M. Italian Experience on Electrical Storage Ageing for Primary Frequency Regulation. Energies 2018, 11, 2087.
Benato R, Dambone Sessa S, Musio M, Palone F, Polito RM. Italian Experience on Electrical Storage Ageing for Primary Frequency Regulation. Energies. 2018; 11(8):2087.Chicago/Turabian Style
Benato, Roberto; Dambone Sessa, Sebastian; Musio, Maura; Palone, Francesco; Polito, Rosario M. 2018. "Italian Experience on Electrical Storage Ageing for Primary Frequency Regulation." Energies 11, no. 8: 2087.
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