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Energies 2018, 11(3), 621; doi:10.3390/en11030621

Conversion of Levulinic Acid from Various Herbaceous Biomass Species Using Hydrochloric Acid and Effects of Particle Size and Delignification

Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Energy)
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Acid catalyzed hydrothermal conversion of levulinic acid (LA) from various herbaceous materials including rice straw (RS), corn stover (CS), sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB), and Miscanthus (MS) was evaluated. With 1 M HCl, 150 °C, 5 h, 20 g/L solid loading, the yields of LA from untreated RS, CS, SSB and MS based on the glucan content were 60.2, 75.1, 78.5 and 61.7 wt %, respectively. It was also found that the particle size had no significant effect on LA conversion yield with >3 h reaction time. With delignification using simulated green liquor (Na2CO3-Na2S, 20 wt % total titratable alkali (TTA), 40 wt % sulfidity) at 200 °C for 15 min, lignin removal was in the range of 64.8–91.2 wt %. Removal of both lignin and xylan during delignification increased the glucan contents from 33.0–44.3 of untreated biomass to 61.7–68.4 wt % of treated biomass. Delignified biomass resulted in much lower conversion yield (50.4–56.0 wt %) compared to 60.2–78.5 wt % of untreated biomass. Nonetheless, the concentration of LA in the product was enhanced by a factor of ~1.5 with delignification. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofuel; lignocellulosic biomass; pretreatment; lignin; hydrochloric acid biofuel; lignocellulosic biomass; pretreatment; lignin; hydrochloric acid

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pulidindi, I.N.; Kim, T.H. Conversion of Levulinic Acid from Various Herbaceous Biomass Species Using Hydrochloric Acid and Effects of Particle Size and Delignification. Energies 2018, 11, 621.

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