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Energies 2018, 11(3), 522; doi:10.3390/en11030522

Energy Management Strategy for Micro-Grids with PV-Battery Systems and Electric Vehicles

Automatic Control, Robotics and Mechatronics Research Group, Solar Energy Research Center Joint UAL-PSA CIEMAT (CIESOL), University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Energy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4163 KB, uploaded 28 February 2018]   |  


This paper analyzes the impact of photovoltaic (PV) systems on storage and electric vehicles in micro-grids. As these kinds of systems are becoming increasingly popular in the residential sector, the development of a new generation of equipment, such as more efficient batteries or solar panels, makes further study necessary. These systems are especially interesting in commercial or office buildings, since they have a more repetitive daily pattern of electricity consumption, which usually occurs within the maximum solar radiation hours. Based on this need, a novel control strategy aimed at efficiently managing this kind of micro-grid is proposed. The core of this strategy is a rule-based controller managing the power flows between the grid and the batteries of both the PV system and the electric vehicle. Through experimental data and simulations, this strategy was tested under different scenarios. The selected testbed consisted of the laboratory of a research center, which could be easily scalable to the entire building. Results showed the benefits of using an electric vehicle as an active agent in energy balance, leading to a reduction of the energetic costs of a micro-grid. View Full-Text
Keywords: smart micro-grid; photovoltaic system; electric vehicle; rule-based control; optimization smart micro-grid; photovoltaic system; electric vehicle; rule-based control; optimization

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Torres-Moreno, J.L.; Gimenez-Fernandez, A.; Perez-Garcia, M.; Rodriguez, F. Energy Management Strategy for Micro-Grids with PV-Battery Systems and Electric Vehicles. Energies 2018, 11, 522.

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