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Energies 2018, 11(2), 467; doi:10.3390/en11020467

Experimental Determination of Gas Relative Permeability Considering Slippage Effect in a Tight Formation

CMOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249, China
Chemical & Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA
School of Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences-Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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In this paper, the gas relative permeability considering slippage effect has been experimentally examined under various experimental conditions (i.e., ambient, high confining pressure, and high temperature). Experimentally, Klinkenberg permeabilities of 12 core samples have been measured by using steady-state flow experiment. It has been found that the Klinkenberg permeability is independent of the experimental temperature and dramatically decreases as confining pressure is increasing. Furthermore, linear correlations have been newly developed between the Klinkenberg permeability and the gas-measured permeability under various conditions. Subsequently, the developed correlations are correspondingly applied to calibrate the gas relative permeability. It has been found that the gas relative permeability can be overestimated without consideration of the slippage effect, i.e., Klinkenberg effect. In addition, the newly developed correlations have been applied to analyze the sensitivity of gas–water relative permeability to gas-measured permeability, confining pressure, and temperature. It is demonstrated that mobile water greatly alleviates the gas relative permeability in comparison to irreducible water. Although an increased confining pressure simultaneously reduces the effective water phase and gas phase permeability, the gas relative permeability increases and the water relative permeability decreases as the confining pressure increases. It is attributed to the fact that the effective water phase permeability is more sensitive to the confining pressure. Given an elevated experimental temperature, the gas relative permeability is reduced while the water relative permeability is enhanced, implying the significance of temperature effect on gas–water relative permeability measurements. View Full-Text
Keywords: tight formation; slippage effect; Klinkenberg permeability; gas relative permeability; pore-throat structure tight formation; slippage effect; Klinkenberg permeability; gas relative permeability; pore-throat structure

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, G.; Fan, Z.; Lu, Y.; Li, S.; Feng, B.; Xia, Y.; Zhao, Q. Experimental Determination of Gas Relative Permeability Considering Slippage Effect in a Tight Formation. Energies 2018, 11, 467.

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