Esterification Optimization of Crude African Palm Olein Using Response Surface Methodology and Heterogeneous Acid Catalysis
Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Carmen, Calle 56 No. 4 Esq. Av. Concordia, Col. Benito Juárez, Ciudad del Carmen 24180, Campeche, Mexico
Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Carmen, Campus III, Avenida Central S/N, Esq. con Fracc. Mundo Maya, Ciudad del Carmen 24115, Campeche, Mexico
Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Av. Industrias no Contaminantes por Periférico Norte, Apdo, Postal 150 Cordemex, Merida 97000, Yucatan, Mexico
Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito de la Investigación Científica Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. 04510, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 October 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 9 January 2018
In this work, the effect of zeolite montmorillonite KSF in the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) of crude African palm olein (Eleaias guinnesis
Jacq) was studied. To optimize the esterification of FFAs of the crude African palm olein (CAPO), the response surface methodology (RSM) that was based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used. The effects of three parameters were investigated: (a) catalyst loading (2.6–9.4 wt %), (b) reaction temperature (133.2–166.2 °C), and (c) reaction time (0.32–3.68 h). The Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that linear terms of catalyst loading (X1
), reaction temperature (X2
), the quadratic term of catalyst loading (
), temperature reaction (
), reaction time (
), the interaction catalyst loading with reaction time ( X3
), and the interaction reaction temperature with reaction time ( X3
) have a significant effect (p
< 0.05 with a 95% confidence level) on Fatty Methyl Ester (FAME) yield. The result indicated that the optimum reaction conditions to esterification of FFAs were: catalyst loading 9.4 wt %, reaction temperature 155.5 °C, and 3.3 h for reaction time, respectively. Under these conditions, the numerical estimation of FAME yield was 91.81 wt %. This result was experimentally validated obtaining a difference of 1.7% FAME yield, with respect to simulated values.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Anguebes-Franseschi, F.; Abatal, M.; Bassam, A.; Escalante Soberanis, M.A.; May Tzuc, O.; Bucio-Galindo, L.; Cordova Quiroz, A.V.; Aguilar Ucan, C.A.; Ramirez-Elias, M.A. Esterification Optimization of Crude African Palm Olein Using Response Surface Methodology and Heterogeneous Acid Catalysis. Energies 2018, 11, 157.
Anguebes-Franseschi F, Abatal M, Bassam A, Escalante Soberanis MA, May Tzuc O, Bucio-Galindo L, Cordova Quiroz AV, Aguilar Ucan CA, Ramirez-Elias MA. Esterification Optimization of Crude African Palm Olein Using Response Surface Methodology and Heterogeneous Acid Catalysis. Energies. 2018; 11(1):157.
Anguebes-Franseschi, Francisco; Abatal, Mohamed; Bassam, Ali; Escalante Soberanis, Mauricio A.; May Tzuc, Oscar; Bucio-Galindo, Lauro; Cordova Quiroz, Atl V.; Aguilar Ucan, Claudia A.; Ramirez-Elias, Miguel A. 2018. "Esterification Optimization of Crude African Palm Olein Using Response Surface Methodology and Heterogeneous Acid Catalysis." Energies 11, no. 1: 157.
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