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Energies 2017, 10(7), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070964

Characteristics of Early Flame Development in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition CNG Engine Fitted with a Variable Swirl Control Valve

1
Center for Automotive Research, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh 31750, Perak, Malaysia
2
Automotive Engineering Research Group (AERG), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Pekan 26600, Pahang, Malaysia
3
Automotive Engineering Center (AEC), Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Pekan 26600, Pahang, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Theocharis Tsoutsos
Received: 3 June 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Fundamentals and Conversion)
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Abstract

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of the structure of the induction flow on the characteristics of early flames in a lean-stratified and lean-homogeneous charge combustion of compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel in a direct injection (DI) engine at different engine speeds. The engine speed was varied at 1500 rpm, 1800 rpm and 2100 rpm, and the ignition timing was set at a 38.5° crank angle (CA) after top dead center (TDC) for all conditions. The engine was operated in a partial-load mode and a homogeneous air/fuel charge was achieved by injecting the fuel early (before the intake valve closure), while late injection during the compression stroke was used to produce a stratified charge. Different induction flow structures were obtained by adjusting the swirl control valves (SCV). Using an endoscopic intensified CCD (ICCD) camera, flame images were captured and analyzed. Code was developed to analyze the level of distortion of the flame and its wrinkledness, displacement and position relative to the spark center, as well as the flame growth rate. The results showed a higher flame growth rate with the flame kernel in the homogeneous charge, compared to the stratified combustion case. In the stratified charge combustion scenario, the 10° SCV closure (medium-tumble) resulted in a higher early flame growth rate, whereas a homogeneous charge combustion (characterized by strong swirl) resulted in the highest rate of flame growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: flame wrinkles; flame distortion; flame development; turbulent flow; chain code; elliptic Fourier analysis flame wrinkles; flame distortion; flame development; turbulent flow; chain code; elliptic Fourier analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Aziz, A.R.A.; Anbese, Y.T.; Hagos, F.Y.; Heikal, M.R.; Firmansyah. Characteristics of Early Flame Development in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition CNG Engine Fitted with a Variable Swirl Control Valve. Energies 2017, 10, 964.

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