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Energies 2017, 10(6), 798; doi:10.3390/en10060798

Study on the Effects of Evaporation and Condensation on the Underfloor Space of Japanese Detached Houses Using CFD Analysis

1
Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Architecture, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
2
Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bjørn Hjertager
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Fluid Dynamics)
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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of evaporation and condensation on the underfloor space of Japanese detached houses. In this underfloor space, natural ventilation is applied. A typical Japanese wooden detached house is raised 0.3–0.5 m over an underfloor space made of concrete. The bottom of the underfloor space is usually paved with concrete, and the ceiling which is directly underneath the indoor occupant zone is made of wood. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is applied to calculate the rates of the evaporation and condensation generated inside the underfloor under two conditions, namely, a constant (fixed) outdoor environmental condition and a fluctuating environmental condition. In the constant condition, we verified the effects of the outdoor humidity, ventilation rate, and ratio of wetted surface (RWS, ω) on the evaporation and condensation inside the underfloor space. In this condition, the rate of evaporation and condensation was quantified considering the varying outdoor humidity between 0 to 100%, and the RWS (ω = 1 or 0). In addition, the influence of the different ventilation rates at 1.0 m/s for normal and 0.05 m/s for stagnant wind velocities were confirmed. Under fluctuating environmental conditions, the outdoor conditions change for 24 h, so the RWS varies. Therefore, the rate of evaporation and condensation, the amount of the condensed water, and the area of condensation were confirmed. The results were as follows: with a high airflow rate on the underfloor space, the evaporation and condensation phenomenon occurs continuously and is easily affected by outdoor humidity, while under low airflow rate conditions, only the condensation appeared steadily. If the wind velocity is strong, the convective mass transfer on a surface becomes large. In a condition of the outdoor humidity and the airflow rate on underfloor are high, condensation mainly occurs in a corner of the underfloor space due to high evaporation by convection in the mainstream of the airflow. By contrast, when the airflow rate is low, condensation occurs along the air stream. Accordingly, this information could be employed as design considerations for the underfloor space at the architectural design stage. View Full-Text
Keywords: underfloor ventilation; evaporation and condensation; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); ratio of wetted surface (RWS) underfloor ventilation; evaporation and condensation; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); ratio of wetted surface (RWS)
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Oh, W.; Kato, S. Study on the Effects of Evaporation and Condensation on the Underfloor Space of Japanese Detached Houses Using CFD Analysis. Energies 2017, 10, 798.

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