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Energies 2017, 10(6), 793; doi:10.3390/en10060793

Safety Requirements for Transportation of Lithium Batteries

1
College of Engineering Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
2
Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE), University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
3
Bern Universities of Applied Sciences, BFH-CSEM Energy Storage Research Centre, Aarbergstrasse 5, 2560 Nidau, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter J. S. Foot
Received: 24 January 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
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Abstract

The demand for battery-powered products, ranging from consumer goods to electric vehicles, keeps increasing. As a result, batteries are manufactured and shipped globally, and the safe and reliable transport of batteries from production sites to suppliers and consumers, as well as for disposal, must be guaranteed at all times. This is especially true of lithium batteries, which have been identified as dangerous goods when they are transported. This paper reviews the international and key national (U.S., Europe, China, South Korea, and Japan) air, road, rail, and sea transportation requirements for lithium batteries. This review is needed because transportation regulations are not consistent across countries and national regulations are not consistent with international regulations. Comparisons are thus provided to enable proper and cost-effective transportation; to aid in the testing, packaging, marking, labelling, and documentation required for safe and reliable lithium cell/battery transport; and to help in developing national and internal policies. View Full-Text
Keywords: regulations; transport; safety; lithium-ion batteries; lithium-metal batteries regulations; transport; safety; lithium-ion batteries; lithium-metal batteries
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huo, H.; Xing, Y.; Pecht, M.; Züger, B.J.; Khare, N.; Vezzini, A. Safety Requirements for Transportation of Lithium Batteries. Energies 2017, 10, 793.

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