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Energies 2017, 10(4), 576; doi:10.3390/en10040576

Enhancing Oil Recovery from Chalk Reservoirs by a Low-Salinity Water Flooding Mechanism and Fluid/Rock Interactions

Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway
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Academic Editor: Alireza Bahadori
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oil and Gas Engineering)
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Abstract

Different Low Salinity Waters (LSWs) are investigated in this work to understand the role of some ions, which were recognized from our previous work and the literature for their effect on wettability alteration. Different flooding stages were followed. The primary stage was by injecting synthetic seawater (SSW) and the secondary stage was with SSW diluted by 10 (LSW 1:10) and 50 (LSW 1:50) times, single and two salt brines, such as Na2SO4, MgCl2, and NaCl+MgCl2 at 70 °C. The flooding sequence was due to that most of the fields in the North Sea were flooded with seawater. Two flooding rates were followed, 4 PV/day (PV = Pore Volume) and 16 PV/day in all the experiments. One of the observations was the increase of the pH during the flooding with LSW and single salt brines. The increase of the pH was attributed to mineral precipitation/dissolution as the results of ionic interactions. The effluent ion concentrations measured to understand the most likely oil recovery mechanisms. The results showed that the higher the SSW dilution the slower the oil recovery response. In presence of SO42−, Ca/Mg, higher oil recovery. The exchange between Ca/Mg, was in line with field observations. A geochemical simulation was done for a comparison with the experimental data. View Full-Text
Keywords: low salinity flooding; oil recovery; chalk; calcium; magnesium; sulfate low salinity flooding; oil recovery; chalk; calcium; magnesium; sulfate
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Hamouda, A.A.; Gupta, S. Enhancing Oil Recovery from Chalk Reservoirs by a Low-Salinity Water Flooding Mechanism and Fluid/Rock Interactions. Energies 2017, 10, 576.

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