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Energies 2017, 10(4), 559; doi:10.3390/en10040559

Frequency Control Ancillary Service Provided by Efficient Power Plants Integrated in Queuing-Controlled Domestic Water Heaters

1
Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
2
State Power Economic Research Institute, Changping District, Beijing 102209, China
3
China Electric Power Research Institute, Haidian District, Beijing 100192, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lei Feng and John Kessels
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 9 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Management Control)

Abstract

Frequency is an important parameter of a power system. It is of great significance to maintain its stability, especially in the current development scenario of large-scale interconnected power systems. Thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs) are good controllable resources for demand response owing to their rapid response capabilities and relatively wide controllable ranges. In this study, domestic water heaters, which have wider deadbands compared with other typical TCAs, such as heat pumps, are used as frequency regulation resources. The main contribution of this paper is that it proposes a queuing-controlled strategy with lock-on and off constraints for controlling an efficient power plant consisting of water heaters (EPP-WH). The queuing-controlled strategy enables TCAs to provide frequency regulation ancillary service for the normal operation of the power system. The thermal dynamic process of the water heater and the formation of the EPP-WH are first discussed. Based on the developed model, a series of strategies are proposed, including load shedding calculation, top layer optimization, and improved temperature priority list (TPL) strategy with lock-on and off constraints. Finally, typical case studies are discussed to illustrate the frequency regulation effects and the effects of two characteristic parameters—users’ willingness and lock time limits. Reasonable targets are generated based on various consideration from top layer optimization module. The results indicate that using the model and proposed strategies, the EPP-WH has good frequency regulation performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: frequency control; demand response; thermostatically controlled appliance (TCA); efficient power plant (EPP); temperature priority list (TPL) strategy frequency control; demand response; thermostatically controlled appliance (TCA); efficient power plant (EPP); temperature priority list (TPL) strategy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Qi, Y.; Wang, D.; Wang, X.; Jia, H.; Pu, T.; Chen, N.; Liu, K. Frequency Control Ancillary Service Provided by Efficient Power Plants Integrated in Queuing-Controlled Domestic Water Heaters. Energies 2017, 10, 559.

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