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Energies 2017, 10(4), 508; doi:10.3390/en10040508

Hysteresis Analysis and Control of a Metal-Polymer Hybrid Soft Actuator

1
Institute of Product and Processinnovation, Leuphana University of Lueneburg, Volgershall 1,D-21339 Lueneburg, Germany
2
Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, Solid State Joining Processes, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany
3
Institute of Polymer Composites, Hamburg University of Technology, Denicke Str. 15, D-21073 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 11 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 8 April 2017
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Abstract

The number of applications of stimulus-responsive polymers is growing at an impressive rate. The motivation of this contribution is to use a commercially available low-budget silver-coated polyamide (PA6) as a thermo-responsive metal-polymer hybrid soft actuator. Polyamide is a hygroscopic polymer; therefore, its mechanical and physical-chemical properties are affected by exposition to humidity or immersion in water. The effect of water absorption content on the PA6 and silver-coated PA6 monofilament properties, such as mass change and resistance, were evaluated. Moreover, the influence of swelling and shrinking effects on the surface morphology, caused by variations of moisture and water immersion, was investigated. Based on these variations, the dynamics of the resistance of the hybrid material were analyzed in the context of the proposed hysteresis model. An identification procedure of the hysteresis is presented along with an approximation of the upper and lower bound based on a constrained least square approach. A switching logic algorithm for this hybrid dynamic system is introduced, which makes it possible to structure the non-linear function in a switching mode. Finally, a non-linear integral sliding manifold is proposed and tested to control the resulting force of the actuator.hysteresis model. An identification procedure of the hysteresis is presented along with an approximation of the upper and lower bound based on a constrained least square approach. A switching logic algorithm for this hybrid dynamic system is introduced, which makes it possible to structure the non-linear function in a switching mode. Finally, a non-linear integral sliding manifold is proposed and tested to control the resulting force of the actuator. View Full-Text
Keywords: soft actuator; metal-polymer hybrid material; switching system soft actuator; metal-polymer hybrid material; switching system
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Schimmack, M.; Feistauer, E.E.; Amancio-Filho, S.T.; Mercorelli, P. Hysteresis Analysis and Control of a Metal-Polymer Hybrid Soft Actuator. Energies 2017, 10, 508.

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