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Energies 2017, 10(3), 317; doi:10.3390/en10030317

Wind Farm Wake: The 2016 Horns Rev Photo Case

1
Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
2
DONG Energy A/S, Kraftværksvej 53, 7000 Fredericia, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frede Blaabjerg
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Wind Turbines)

Abstract

Offshore wind farm wakes were observed and photographed in foggy conditions at Horns Rev 2 on 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC. These new images show highly contrasting conditions regarding the wind speed, turbulence intensity, atmospheric stability, weather conditions and wind farm wake development as compared to the Horns Rev 1 photographs from 12 February 2008. The paper examines the atmospheric conditions from satellite images, radiosondes, lidar and wind turbine data and compares the observations to results from atmospheric meso-scale modelling and large eddy simulation. Key findings are that a humid and warm air mass was advected from the southwest over cold sea and the dew-point temperature was such that cold-water advection fog formed in a shallow layer. The flow was stably stratified and the freestream wind speed was 13 m/s at hub height, which means that most turbines produced at or near rated power. The wind direction was southwesterly and long, narrow wakes persisted several rotor diameters downwind of the wind turbines. Eventually mixing of warm air from aloft dispersed the fog in the far wake region of the wind farm. View Full-Text
Keywords: wind farm wake; fog; wake modelling; meteorological conditions wind farm wake; fog; wake modelling; meteorological conditions
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hasager, C.B.; Nygaard, N.G.; Volker, P.J.H.; Karagali, I.; Andersen, S.J.; Badger, J. Wind Farm Wake: The 2016 Horns Rev Photo Case. Energies 2017, 10, 317.

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