Next Article in Journal
Optimum Design and Operation of an HVAC Cooling Tower for Energy and Water Conservation
Previous Article in Journal
An Active Power Filter Based on a Three-Level Inverter and 3D-SVPWM for Selective Harmonic and Reactive Compensation
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2017, 10(3), 298;

Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Leaf Litter Designated for Combustion

Department of Grassland Science and Renewable Plant Resources, Kassel University, Steinstrasse 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Khanh-Quang Tran and Øyvind Skreiberg
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Combustion for Heat and Power Generation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [695 KB, uploaded 3 March 2017]   |  


Vast amounts of leaf litter have to be disposed of by city administrations. This biomass has the potential for energy conversion, but contamination with pollutants can adversely affect this usage. We investigated leaf litter samples from the city of Kassel by analyzing their heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. Leaf samples were indeed contaminated with heavy metals and PAHs and contamination was influenced by provenience and collection technique. A simple cleaning system of washing and subsequent mechanical dewatering significantly reduced heavy metal concentration. Regression models were developed for contamination with heavy metals which showed that contamination could be successfully estimated using the total ash content of the sample as a predictor, with an R2 of up to 0.77. It can be concluded that leaf litter from cities is a possible feedstock for energetic conversion, provided a cleaning step is applied. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioenergy; municipal; contamination; leaves; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bioenergy; municipal; contamination; leaves; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nitsche, M.; Nurmatov, N.; Hensgen, F.; Wachendorf, M. Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Leaf Litter Designated for Combustion. Energies 2017, 10, 298.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top