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Energies 2017, 10(2), 206; doi:10.3390/en10020206

A Cell-to-Cell Equalizer Based on Three-Resonant-State Switched-Capacitor Converters for Series-Connected Battery Strings

School of Control Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rui Xiong, Hailong Li and Joe (Xuan) Zhou
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 11 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Energy Storage Technologies and Their Applications (AESA))
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Abstract

Due to the low cost, small size, and ease of control, the switched-capacitor (SC) battery equalizers are promising among active balancing methods. However, it is difficult to achieve the full cell equalization for the SC equalizers due to the inevitable voltage drops across Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) switches. Moreover, when the voltage gap among cells is larger, the balancing efficiency is lower, while the balancing speed becomes slower as the voltage gap gets smaller. In order to soften these downsides, this paper proposes a cell-to-cell battery equalization topology with zero-current switching (ZCS) and zero-voltage gap (ZVG) among cells based on three-resonant-state SC converters. Based on the conventional inductor-capacitor (LC) converter, an additional resonant path is built to release the charge of the capacitor into the inductor in each switching cycle, which lays the foundations for obtaining ZVG among cells, improves the balancing efficiency at a large voltage gap, and increases the balancing speed at a small voltage gap. A four-lithium-ion-cell prototype is applied to validate the theoretical analysis. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed topology has good equalization performances with fast equalization, ZCS, and ZVG among cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery equalizers; battery management systems; switched-capacitor (SC) converters; zero-voltage gap (ZVG); modularization; electric vehicles (EVs) battery equalizers; battery management systems; switched-capacitor (SC) converters; zero-voltage gap (ZVG); modularization; electric vehicles (EVs)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Shang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Cui, N.; Zhang, C. A Cell-to-Cell Equalizer Based on Three-Resonant-State Switched-Capacitor Converters for Series-Connected Battery Strings. Energies 2017, 10, 206.

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