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Energies 2017, 10(12), 2021; doi:10.3390/en10122021

Optimizing the Structure of the Straight Cone Nozzle and the Parameters of Borehole Hydraulic Mining for Huadian Oil Shale Based on Experimental Research

1,2,3,4,5,6,* and 5,7,8
1
Center for Postdoctoral Studies of Geological Resources and Geological Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China
3
College of Environment and Civil Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China
4
Trenchless Technology Center, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71270, USA
5
Key Laboratory of Drilling and Exploitation Technology in Complex Conditions of Ministry of Land and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026, China
6
Key Laboratory of Metallogenic Prediction of Nonferrous Metals and Geological Environment Monitoring of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
7
National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of In-Situ Conversion, Drilling and Exploitation Technology for Oil Shale, Changchun 130021, China
8
College of Construction Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130026, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical and Computational Modeling in Geothermal Engineering)
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Abstract

Oil shale is a kind of potential alternative energy source for petroleum and has attracted the attention of energy researchers all over the world. Borehole hydraulic mining has more prominent advantages than both conventional open-pit mining and underground mining. It is very important to attempt to use the borehole hydraulic mining method to exploit underground oil shale. The nozzle is the key component of borehole hydraulic mining and reasonable mining parameters are also crucial in exploiting underground oil shale efficiently. The straight cone nozzle and the oil shale of Huadian area will be taken as the research objects. The self-developed, multifunctional, experimental device can test both the jet’s performance as well as the breaking of oil shale by the high-pressure water jet using the straight cone nozzle and varying structural parameters. Comprehensive analysis of the results of an orthogonal experimental design, including range analysis and variance analysis, demonstrate the optimal structural parameters of a straight cone nozzle as follows: the outlet diameter is 4 mm, the length to diameter ratio is 2.5, and the contraction angle is 60°. In addition, in order to maximize the efficiency of borehole hydraulic mining for Huadian oil shale, the non-submerged jet should be placed parallel to the oil shale bedding. These results can provide scientific and valuable references for borehole hydraulic mining of oil shale. View Full-Text
Keywords: oil shale; straight cone nozzle; borehole hydraulic mining; orthogonal experimental design; optimization oil shale; straight cone nozzle; borehole hydraulic mining; orthogonal experimental design; optimization
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Wen, J.; Chen, C. Optimizing the Structure of the Straight Cone Nozzle and the Parameters of Borehole Hydraulic Mining for Huadian Oil Shale Based on Experimental Research. Energies 2017, 10, 2021.

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