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Energies 2017, 10(12), 1970; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10121970

Viscosity Models for Polymer Free CO2 Foam Fracturing Fluid with the Effect of Surfactant Concentration, Salinity and Shear Rate

1
Department of Petroleum Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak, Malaysia
2
Department of Petroleum Engineering, Petroleum Institute, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 26 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow and Transport Properties of Unconventional Reservoirs)
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Abstract

High quality polymer free CO2 foam possesses unique properties that make it an ideal fluid for fracturing unconventional shales. In this paper, the viscosity of polymer free fracturing foam and its empirical correlations at high pressure high temperature (HPHT) as a function of surfactant concentration, salinity, and shear rate are presented. Foams were generated using a widely-used surfactant, i.e., alpha olefin sulfonate (AOS) in the presence of brine and a stabilizer at HPHT. Pressurize foam rheometer was used to find out the viscosity of CO2 foams at different surfactant concentration (0.25–1 wt %) and salinity (0.5–8 wt %) over a wide range of shear rate (10–500 s−1) at 1500 psi and 80 °C. Experimental results concluded that foam apparent viscosity increases noticeably until the surfactant concentration of 0.5 wt %, whereas, the increment in salinity provided a continuous increase in foam apparent viscosity. Nonlinear regression was performed on experimental data and empirical correlations were developed. Power law model for foam viscosity was modified to accommodate for the effect of shear rate, surfactant concentration, and salinity. Power law indices (K and n) were found to be a strong function of surfactant concentration and salinity. The new correlations accurately predict the foam apparent viscosity under various stimulation scenarios and these can be used for fracture simulation modeling. View Full-Text
Keywords: CO2 foam; foam apparent viscosity; viscosity correlation; salinity; surfactant concentration CO2 foam; foam apparent viscosity; viscosity correlation; salinity; surfactant concentration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Ahmed, S.; Elraies, K.A.; Hashmet, M.R.; Hanamertani, A.S. Viscosity Models for Polymer Free CO2 Foam Fracturing Fluid with the Effect of Surfactant Concentration, Salinity and Shear Rate. Energies 2017, 10, 1970.

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