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Energies 2017, 10(11), 1858; doi:10.3390/en10111858

The Future of Sustainable Energy Production in Pakistan: A System Dynamics-Based Approach for Estimating Hubbert Peaks

1
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2
Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communities, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
3
Department of Electrical Engineering, Energy Environmental Engineering Research Group, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro 76062, Pakistan
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology, Nawabshah 67450, Pakistan
5
State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 October 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
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Abstract

This paper presents an effort pertaining to the simulation of the future production in Pakistan of different primary energy resources, i.e., coal, natural gas and crude oil, thereby constructing Hubbert peaks. In this context, the past 45 years’ production data of primary energy resources of Pakistan have been analyzed and simulated using a generic STELLA (Systems Thinking, Experimental Learning Laboratory with Animation) model. The results show that the Hubbert peak of Pakistan’s crude oil production has been somehow already achieved in 2013, with the highest production of 4.52 million toe, which is 1.51 times the production in 2000. Similarly, the natural gas peak production is expected in 2024 with a production of 32.70 million toe which shall be 1.96-fold the extraction of the resource in the year 2000. On the other hand, the coal production in the country has been historically very low and with a constant production rate that is gradually picking up, the peak production year for the coal is anticipated to be in the year 2080 with an estimated production of 134.06 million. Based on the results of this study, which provide a greater understanding of future energy patterns, it is recommended that an energy security policy be devised for the country to ensure sustained supplies in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: coal; energy security; Hubbert peaks; natural gas; Pakistan; primary energy coal; energy security; Hubbert peaks; natural gas; Pakistan; primary energy
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Rehman, S.A.U.; Cai, Y.; Mirjat, N.H.; Walasai, G.D.; Shah, I.A.; Ali, S. The Future of Sustainable Energy Production in Pakistan: A System Dynamics-Based Approach for Estimating Hubbert Peaks. Energies 2017, 10, 1858.

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