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Energies 2017, 10(11), 1766; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111766

A Novel Active Online State of Charge Based Balancing Approach for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs during Fast Charging Process in Electric Vehicles

1
Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia
2
School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract

Abstract: Non-uniformity of Lithium-ion cells in a battery pack is inevitable and has become the bottleneck to the pack capacity, especially in the fast charging process. Therefore, a balancing approach is essentially required. This paper proposes an active online cell balancing approach in a fast charging process using the state of charge (SOC) as balancing criterion. The goal of this approach is to complete pack balancing within the limited charging time. An adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF) is applied to estimate the pack cell SOC during the charging process to obtain accurate results under modeling errors and measurement noises. To implement the proposed AEKF, only one additional current sensor is required to obtain the current of each cell required for the SOC estimation. An experimental platform is established to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results show that the proposed balancing approach with the SOC as a balancing criterion can overcome the challenges of non-uniformity and flat voltage plateau and charge more capacity into a LiFePO4 battery pack than those with the terminal voltage as a balancing criterion in the fast charging process. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium-ion battery pack; the active cell balancing for battery packs; fast charging with balancing; electric vehicles; adaptive extended Kalman filter; pack SOC estimation lithium-ion battery pack; the active cell balancing for battery packs; fast charging with balancing; electric vehicles; adaptive extended Kalman filter; pack SOC estimation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Cui, X.; Shen, W.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, C. A Novel Active Online State of Charge Based Balancing Approach for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs during Fast Charging Process in Electric Vehicles. Energies 2017, 10, 1766.

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