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Energies 2017, 10(10), 1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101656

Constant Power Loads (CPL) with Microgrids: Problem Definition, Stability Analysis and Compensation Techniques

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Misan, Al-Amarah, Misan 62001, Iraq
2
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gazi University, Besevler, Ankara 06500, Turkey
3
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa
4
Faculty of Engineering, Østfold University College, Kobberslagerstredet 5, 1671 Kråkeroy, Norway
5
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angela Russo
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 September 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Methods for Smart Grids Planning and Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6564 KB, uploaded 20 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

This paper provides a comprehensive review of the major concepts associated with the μgrid, such as constant power load (CPL), incremental negative resistance or impedance (INR/I) and its dynamic behaviours on the μgrid, and power system distribution (PSD). In general, a μgrid is defined as a cluster of different types of electrical loads and renewable energy sources (distributed generations) under a unified controller within a certain local area. It is considered a perfect solution to integrate renewable energy sources with loads as well as with a traditional grid. In addition, it can operate with a conventional grid, for example, by energy sourcing or a controllable load, or it can operate alone as an islanding mode to feed required electric energy to a grid. Hence, one of the important issues regarding the μgrid is the constant power load that results from the tightly designed control when it is applied to power electronic converters. The effect of CPL is incremental negative resistance that impacts the power quality of a power system and makes it at negative damping. Also, in this paper, a comprehensive study on major control and compensation techniques for μgrid has been included to face the instability effects of constant power loads. Finally, the merits and limitations of the compensation techniques are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: μgrid; power system distribution (PSD); power electronics; power converters; constant power load (CPL); incremental negative resistance (INR); instability effect of CPL; compensation techniques μgrid; power system distribution (PSD); power electronics; power converters; constant power load (CPL); incremental negative resistance (INR); instability effect of CPL; compensation techniques
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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AL-Nussairi, M.K.; Bayindir, R.; Padmanaban, S.; Mihet-Popa, L.; Siano, P. Constant Power Loads (CPL) with Microgrids: Problem Definition, Stability Analysis and Compensation Techniques. Energies 2017, 10, 1656.

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