Energies 2008, 1(2), 41-78; doi:10.3390/en1010041
Review

Biofuel Impacts on World Food Supply: Use of Fossil Fuel, Land and Water Resources

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Received: 29 July 2008; Accepted: 11 September 2008 / Published: 16 September 2008
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Abstract: The rapidly growing world population and rising consumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other basic foods is critical. Growing crops for fuel squanders land, water and energy resources vital for the production of food for human consumption. Using corn for ethanol increases the price of U.S. beef, chicken, pork, eggs, breads, cereals, and milk more than 10% to 30%.
Keywords: agriculture; biofuels; energy; food security; fossil fuels; natural resources; renewable energy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pimentel, D.; Marklein, A.; Toth, M.A.; Karpoff, M.; Paul, G.S.; McCormack, R.; Kyriazis, J.; Krueger, T. Biofuel Impacts on World Food Supply: Use of Fossil Fuel, Land and Water Resources. Energies 2008, 1, 41-78.

AMA Style

Pimentel D, Marklein A, Toth MA, Karpoff M, Paul GS, McCormack R, Kyriazis J, Krueger T. Biofuel Impacts on World Food Supply: Use of Fossil Fuel, Land and Water Resources. Energies. 2008; 1(2):41-78.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pimentel, David; Marklein, Alison; Toth, Megan A.; Karpoff, Marissa; Paul, Gillian S.; McCormack, Robert; Kyriazis, Joanna; Krueger, Tim. 2008. "Biofuel Impacts on World Food Supply: Use of Fossil Fuel, Land and Water Resources." Energies 1, no. 2: 41-78.


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