Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(9), 3318-3329; doi:10.3390/ijerph9093318
Article

Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh

1,* , 1,2
, 2
, 1,3
, 2
 and 4
Received: 23 July 2012; in revised form: 13 August 2012 / Accepted: 5 September 2012 / Published: 11 September 2012
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [617 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Several types of organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Bangladesh during the last few decades. Twenty seven water samples collected from both paddy and vegetable fields in the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organo-phosphorus (chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon) and carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) pesticide residues. A high performance liquid chromatograph instrument equipped with a photodiode array detector was used to determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Diazinon and carbofuran were detected in water samples collected from Savar Upazila at 0.9 μg/L and 198.7 μg/L, respectively. Malathion was also detected in a single water sample at 105.2 μg/L from Dhamrai Upazila. Carbaryl was the most common pesticide detected in Dhamrai Upazila at 14.1 and 18.1 μg/L, while another water sample from Dhamrai Upazila was contaminated with carbofuran at 105.2 μg/L. Chlorpyrifos was not detected in any sample. Overall, the pesticide residues detected were well above the maximum acceptable levels of total and individual pesticide contamination, at 0.5 and 0.1 μg/L, respectively, in water samples recommended by the European Economic Community (Directive 98/83/EC). The presence of these pesticide residues may be attributed by their intense use by the farmers living in these areas. Proper handling of these pesticides should be ensured to avoid direct or indirect exposure to these pesticides.
Keywords: pesticides; organophosphorus; carbamate; HPLC pesticides; organophosphorus; carbamate; HPLC
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Chowdhury, M.A.Z.; Banik, S.; Uddin, B.; Moniruzzaman, M.; Karim, N.; Gan, S.H. Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 3318-3329.

AMA Style

Chowdhury MAZ, Banik S, Uddin B, Moniruzzaman M, Karim N, Gan SH. Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(9):3318-3329.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chowdhury, Md. Alamgir Zaman; Banik, Sanjoy; Uddin, Borhan; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Karim, Nurul; Gan, Siew Hua. 2012. "Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 9: 3318-3329.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert