Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2204-2225; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062204
Article

Differential Exposure to Hazardous Air Pollution in the United States: A Multilevel Analysis of Urbanization and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation

Received: 2 February 2012; in revised form: 23 April 2012 / Accepted: 10 May 2012 / Published: 13 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cumulative Health Risk Assessment)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Population exposure to multiple chemicals in air presents significant challenges for environmental public health. Air quality regulations distinguish criteria air pollutants (CAPs) (e.g., ozone, PM2.5) from hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)—187 chemicals which include carcinogens and others that are associated with respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological and numerous other non-cancer health effects. Evidence of the public’s cumulative exposure and the health effects of HAPs are quite limited. A multilevel model is used to assess differential exposure to HAP respiratory, neurological, and cancer hazards (2005) related to the Townsend Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation (TSI), after adjustment for regional population size and economic activity, and local population density. We found significant positive associations between tract TSI and respiratory and cancer HAP exposure hazards, and smaller effects for neurological HAPs. Tracts in the top quintile of TSI have between 38%–60% higher HAP exposure than the bottom quintile; increasing population size from the bottom quintile to the top quintile modifies HAP exposure hazard related to TSI, increasing cancer HAP exposure hazard by 6% to 20% and increasing respiratory HAP exposure hazard by 12% to 27%. This study demonstrates the value of social epidemiological methods for analyzing differential exposure and advancing cumulative risk assessment.
Keywords: cumulative risk assessment; socioeconomic deprivation; hazardous air pollution; respiratory health exposure hazards; social epidemiology; environmental epidemiology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Young, G.S.; Fox, M.A.; Trush, M.; Kanarek, N.; Glass, T.A.; Curriero, F.C. Differential Exposure to Hazardous Air Pollution in the United States: A Multilevel Analysis of Urbanization and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2204-2225.

AMA Style

Young GS, Fox MA, Trush M, Kanarek N, Glass TA, Curriero FC. Differential Exposure to Hazardous Air Pollution in the United States: A Multilevel Analysis of Urbanization and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(6):2204-2225.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Young, Gary S.; Fox, Mary A.; Trush, Michael; Kanarek, Norma; Glass, Thomas A.; Curriero, Frank C. 2012. "Differential Exposure to Hazardous Air Pollution in the United States: A Multilevel Analysis of Urbanization and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 6: 2204-2225.

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