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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(2), 370-390; doi:10.3390/ijerph9020370
Review

Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Methodological Approaches for Evaluating Combined Health Effects from Exposure to Multiple Environmental Stressors

Received: 5 January 2012; in revised form: 23 January 2012 / Accepted: 23 January 2012 / Published: 26 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cumulative Health Risk Assessment)
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Abstract: Systematic evaluation of cumulative health risks from the combined effects of multiple environmental stressors is becoming a vital component of risk-based decisions aimed at protecting human populations and communities. This article briefly examines the historical development of cumulative risk assessment as an analytical tool, and discusses current approaches for evaluating cumulative health effects from exposure to both chemical mixtures and combinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. A comparison of stressor-based and effects-based assessment methods is presented, and the potential value of focusing on viable risk management options to limit the scope of cumulative evaluations is discussed. The ultimate goal of cumulative risk assessment is to provide answers to decision-relevant questions based on organized scientific analysis; even if the answers, at least for the time being, are inexact and uncertain.
Keywords: chemical mixtures; combined health effects; cumulative risk assessment; environmental justice; nonchemical stressors; risk analysis chemical mixtures; combined health effects; cumulative risk assessment; environmental justice; nonchemical stressors; risk analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sexton, K. Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Methodological Approaches for Evaluating Combined Health Effects from Exposure to Multiple Environmental Stressors. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 370-390.

AMA Style

Sexton K. Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Methodological Approaches for Evaluating Combined Health Effects from Exposure to Multiple Environmental Stressors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(2):370-390.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sexton, Ken. 2012. "Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Methodological Approaches for Evaluating Combined Health Effects from Exposure to Multiple Environmental Stressors." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 2: 370-390.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert