Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(11), 4135-4149; doi:10.3390/ijerph9114135
Article

Cross-sectional Study on the Effects of Socioeconomic Factors on Lead Exposure in Children by Gender in Serpong, Indonesia

1 Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan 2 Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Syarif Hidayatullah, State Islamic University, Jl, Kertamukti, Ciputat, Jakarta 15412, Indonesia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2012; in revised form: 2 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 November 2012 / Published: 14 November 2012
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Abstract: To elucidate the socioeconomic factors influencing lead exposure in elementary school children by gender, 108 children (56 male, 52 female), aged 6–7 years, were randomly selected from 39 elementary state schools in Serpong, Banten, Indonesia. Their parents were interviewed to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics. Their blood lead (BPb) levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. BPb concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females, i.e., 6.8 ± 2.0 (2.9–12.5) µg/dL and 5.9 ± 1.9 (3.1–11.7) µg/dL, respectively (p < 0.05). Lower socioeconomic status and well water use were associated with increased BPb concentrations, especially in females. The proportion of well water use was related to lower socioeconomic status. Lower socioeconomic status linked with well water drinking seemed to be associated with increased lead exposure in children in Serpong. Their exposure levels possibly varied according to gender differences in behavior. An intervention should be instituted among children in Serpong with BPb concentrations of 10 µg/dL or above.
Keywords: lead; children; socioeconomic factors; drinking water; sex differences; Indonesia

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MDPI and ACS Style

Iriani, D.U.; Matsukawa, T.; Tadjudin, M.K.; Itoh, H.; Yokoyama, K. Cross-sectional Study on the Effects of Socioeconomic Factors on Lead Exposure in Children by Gender in Serpong, Indonesia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 4135-4149.

AMA Style

Iriani DU, Matsukawa T, Tadjudin MK, Itoh H, Yokoyama K. Cross-sectional Study on the Effects of Socioeconomic Factors on Lead Exposure in Children by Gender in Serpong, Indonesia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(11):4135-4149.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iriani, Dewi U.; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Tadjudin, Muhammad K.; Itoh, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Kazuhito. 2012. "Cross-sectional Study on the Effects of Socioeconomic Factors on Lead Exposure in Children by Gender in Serpong, Indonesia." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 11: 4135-4149.

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