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Carbonic Anhydrase as Pollution Biomarker: An Ancient Enzyme with a New Use
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies (Di.S.Te.B.A.), University of Salento, Via prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, Lecce 73100, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 September 2012; in revised form: 12 October 2012 / Accepted: 26 October 2012 / Published: 1 November 2012
Abstract: The measurement of cellular and sub-cellular responses to chemical contaminants (referred to as biomarkers) in living organisms represents a recent tool in environmental monitoring. The review focuses on carbonic anhydrase, a ubiquitous metalloenzyme which plays key roles in a wide variety of physiological processes involving CO2 and HCO3−. In the last decade a number of studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of this enzyme to pollutants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals in both humans and wildlife. The review analyses these studies and discusses the potentiality of this enzyme as novel biomarker in environmental monitoring and assessment.
Keywords: carbonic anhydrase; biomarker; heavy metals; pesticides; biomonitoring
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MDPI and ACS Style
Lionetto, M.G.; Caricato, R.; Giordano, M.E.; Erroi, E.; Schettino, T. Carbonic Anhydrase as Pollution Biomarker: An Ancient Enzyme with a New Use. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 3965-3977.
Lionetto MG, Caricato R, Giordano ME, Erroi E, Schettino T. Carbonic Anhydrase as Pollution Biomarker: An Ancient Enzyme with a New Use. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(11):3965-3977.
Lionetto, Maria G.; Caricato, Roberto; Giordano, Maria E.; Erroi, Elisa; Schettino, Trifone. 2012. "Carbonic Anhydrase as Pollution Biomarker: An Ancient Enzyme with a New Use." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 11: 3965-3977.