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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(11), 3965-3977; doi:10.3390/ijerph9113965
Review

Carbonic Anhydrase as Pollution Biomarker: An Ancient Enzyme with a New Use

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Received: 13 September 2012 / Revised: 12 October 2012 / Accepted: 26 October 2012 / Published: 1 November 2012
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Abstract

The measurement of cellular and sub-cellular responses to chemical contaminants (referred to as biomarkers) in living organisms represents a recent tool in environmental monitoring. The review focuses on carbonic anhydrase, a ubiquitous metalloenzyme which plays key roles in a wide variety of physiological processes involving CO2 and HCO3. In the last decade a number of studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of this enzyme to pollutants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals in both humans and wildlife. The review analyses these studies and discusses the potentiality of this enzyme as novel biomarker in environmental monitoring and assessment.
Keywords: carbonic anhydrase; biomarker; heavy metals; pesticides; biomonitoring carbonic anhydrase; biomarker; heavy metals; pesticides; biomonitoring
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Lionetto, M.G.; Caricato, R.; Giordano, M.E.; Erroi, E.; Schettino, T. Carbonic Anhydrase as Pollution Biomarker: An Ancient Enzyme with a New Use. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 3965-3977.

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