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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2656-2674; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072656

Anabolic Androgenic Steroids—Use and Correlates among Gym Users—An Assessment Study Using Questionnaires and Observations at Gyms in the Stockholm Region

1
STAD, Stockholm Centre for Psychiatric Research and Education, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm County Council Health Care Provision, Box 6031, 113 60 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Department of Management and Engineering (IEI), Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 May 2011 / Revised: 19 June 2011 / Accepted: 20 June 2011 / Published: 29 June 2011
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and offers to use among gym users in Stockholm County (Sweden), and to conduct a comparison of concordance in estimates of AAS and supplements at gyms between two data collection methods. A questionnaire was distributed to members at 36 training facilities and 1,752 gym users participated in the study. An observation study was conducted as covert participant observations at 64 gyms. According to the questionnaire, 3.9% of men reported life time use of AAS, 1.4% use during the past 12 months and 0.4% AAS use during past 30 days. Not only were there similar patterns found in the two methods, i.e., similar age and gender distributions for AAS use, but analyses of concordance showed that gyms with a higher prevalence of self-reported AAS-use and supplement use (questionnaire) showed a significantly higher proportion of observer-assessed AAS users. Analyses of individual predictors showed that AAS users were almost always young men, regular weight trainers and more often users of drugs and nutritional supplements. The higher prevalence of AAS use among gym users than in the general population makes the former an appropriate target group for AAS prevention. The connection between supplements, drugs and AAS use suggests that effective AAS prevention need to focus on several risk factors for AAS use. The clear resemblance in estimates between the observation and questionnaire data strengthen the credibility of the two methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: anabolic androgenic steroids; supplements; gyms; observations; prevention; questionnaire; Stockholm County; weight training anabolic androgenic steroids; supplements; gyms; observations; prevention; questionnaire; Stockholm County; weight training
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Leifman, H.; Rehnman, C.; Sjöblom, E.; Holgersson, S. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids—Use and Correlates among Gym Users—An Assessment Study Using Questionnaires and Observations at Gyms in the Stockholm Region. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 2656-2674.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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