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Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico
Autonomous University of Chihuahua, Periferico Francisco R. Almada, Km. 1 Colonia Zootecnia, Chihuahua, Chih. C.P. 31000, Mexico
Department of Natural Resources, College of Zoo-technology and Ecology, Autonomous University of Chihuahua, Periferico Francisco R. Almada, Km. 1 Colonia Zootecnia, Chihuahua, Chih. C.P.31453, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 November 2010; in revised form: 22 February 2011 / Accepted: 24 February 2011 / Published: 23 June 2011
Abstract: Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.
Keywords: heavy metals; pollution; body water; recreational areas; Chihuahua; Mexico
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MDPI and ACS Style
Rubio-Arias, H.; Rey, N.I.; Quintana, R.M.; Nevarez, G.V.; Palacios, O. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 2386-2400.
Rubio-Arias H, Rey NI, Quintana RM, Nevarez GV, Palacios O. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(6):2386-2400.
Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I.; Quintana, Rey M.; Nevarez, G. Virginia; Palacios, Oskar. 2011. "Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 6: 2386-2400.