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Evaluating and Mapping of Spatial Air Ion Quality Patterns in a Residential Garden Using a Geostatistic Method
Department of Horticulture, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung City 402, Taiwan
Department of Soil and Water Conservation, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung City 402, Taiwan
Department of Geomatics, National Cheng-Kung University, 1, University Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 May 2011; in revised form: 14 June 2011 / Accepted: 14 June 2011 / Published: 20 June 2011
Abstract: Negative air ions (NAI) produce biochemical reactions that increase the levels of the mood chemical serotonin in the environment. Moreover, they benefit both the psychological well being and the human body’s physiological condition. The aim of this research was to estimate and measure the spatial distributions of negative and positive air ions in a residential garden in central Taiwan. Negative and positive air ions were measured at thirty monitoring locations in the study garden from July 2009 to June 2010. Moreover, Kriging was applied to estimate the spatial distribution of negative and positive air ions, as well as the air ion index in the study area. The measurement results showed that the numbers of NAI and PAI differed greatly during the four seasons, the highest and the lowest negative and positive air ion concentrations were found in the summer and winter, respectively. Moreover, temperature was positively affected negative air ions concentration. No matter what temperature is, the ranges of variogram in NAI/PAI were similar during four seasons. It indicated that spatial patterns of NAI/PAI were independent of the seasons and depended on garden elements and configuration, thus the NAP/PAI was a good estimate of the air quality regarding air ions. Kriging maps depicted that the highest negative and positive air ion concentration was next to the waterfall, whereas the lowest air ions areas were next to the exits of the garden. The results reveal that waterscapes are a source of negative and positive air ions, and that plants and green space are a minor source of negative air ions in the study garden. Moreover, temperature and humidity are positively and negatively affected negative air ions concentration, respectively. The proposed monitoring and mapping approach provides a way to effectively assess the patterns of negative and positive air ions in future landscape design projects.
Keywords: negative air ions; positive air ions; geostatistic method; Kriging; garden; air ion index
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wu, C.-F.; Lai, C.-H.; Chu, H.-J.; Lin, W.-H. Evaluating and Mapping of Spatial Air Ion Quality Patterns in a Residential Garden Using a Geostatistic Method. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 2304-2319.
Wu C-F, Lai C-H, Chu H-J, Lin W-H. Evaluating and Mapping of Spatial Air Ion Quality Patterns in a Residential Garden Using a Geostatistic Method. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(6):2304-2319.
Wu, Chen-Fa; Lai, Chun-Hsien; Chu, Hone-Jay; Lin, Wen-Huang. 2011. "Evaluating and Mapping of Spatial Air Ion Quality Patterns in a Residential Garden Using a Geostatistic Method." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 6: 2304-2319.