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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(6), 1914-1922; doi:10.3390/ijerph8061914
Communication

Environmental Surveillance. An Additional/Alternative Approach for Virological Surveillance in Greece?

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Received: 18 April 2011; in revised form: 18 May 2011 / Accepted: 28 May 2011 / Published: 1 June 2011
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Abstract: The detection of viruses in the sewage of an urban city by nucleic acid amplification techniques allows the identification of the viral strains that are circulating in the community. The aim of the study was the application of such detection which gives useful data on the distribution, spread, and frequency of these viruses, supporting epidemiological studies of the related viral infections. A two year (2007–2009) survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of human adenoviruses (hAdV), hepatitis A viruses (HAV), hepatitis E viruses (HEV), noroviruses (NoV), and human polyomaviruses (hPyV) in sewage samples collected from the inlet of a municipal biological wastewater treatment plant located in southwestern Greece. PCR methods were used for this survey. In total, viruses have been detected in 87.5% (42/48) of the analyzed sewage samples. Analytically, DNA viruses, hAdVs and hPyVs have been detected in 45.8% (22/48) and 68.8% (33/48) of the samples, respectively. As it concerns RNA viruses, HAV was detected in 8.3% (4/48), NoVs in 6.3% (3/48), while HEV has not been detected at all. After sequencing, AdVs were typed as Ad8, Ad40 and Ad41, while both JC and BK hPyVs have been recognized. All NoVs have been identified as GII4, while HAV was typed as genotype IA. Similar long-term studies could be undertaken in countries such as Greece in order to offer a valuable and complementary tool to current problematic epidemiological surveillance systems. This study demonstrates the advantages of environmental surveillance as a tool to determine the epidemiology of viruses circulating in a given community. To our knowledge this was the first of its kind study performed in Greece in order to establish this new way of surveillance.
Keywords: sewage; adenovirus; hepatitis A virus; hepatitis E virus; norovirus; polyomavirus; environmental surveillance sewage; adenovirus; hepatitis A virus; hepatitis E virus; norovirus; polyomavirus; environmental surveillance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kokkinos, P.; Ziros, P.; Meri, D.; Filippidou, S.; Kolla, S.; Galanis, A.; Vantarakis, A. Environmental Surveillance. An Additional/Alternative Approach for Virological Surveillance in Greece? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1914-1922.

AMA Style

Kokkinos P, Ziros P, Meri D, Filippidou S, Kolla S, Galanis A, Vantarakis A. Environmental Surveillance. An Additional/Alternative Approach for Virological Surveillance in Greece? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(6):1914-1922.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kokkinos, Petros; Ziros, Panos; Meri, Danai; Filippidou, Sevasti; Kolla, Stella; Galanis, Alexis; Vantarakis, Apostolos. 2011. "Environmental Surveillance. An Additional/Alternative Approach for Virological Surveillance in Greece?" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 6: 1914-1922.



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