Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 321-340; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020321
Article

The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

1 Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA 2 Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA 3 Centre for Tobacco Control Research, Institute for Social Marketing, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK 4 Department of Health Promotion, Social and Behavioral Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 42nd and Emile Streets, Omaha, NE 68198, USA 5 VicHealth Centre for Tobacco Control, The Cancer Council Victoria, 100 Drummond Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia 6 Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, Nottingham City Hospital, University of Nottingham, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2010; in revised form: 15 January 2011 / Accepted: 20 January 2011 / Published: 26 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
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Abstract: Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.
Keywords: tobacco control; marketing regulation; socioeconomic differences; public policy

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kasza, K.A.; Hyland, A.J.; Brown, A.; Siahpush, M.; Yong, H.-H.; McNeill, A.D.; Li, L.; Cummings, K.M. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 321-340.

AMA Style

Kasza KA, Hyland AJ, Brown A, Siahpush M, Yong H-H, McNeill AD, Li L, Cummings KM. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(2):321-340.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D.; Li, Lin; Cummings, K. Michael. 2011. "The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 2: 321-340.

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