Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4207-4219; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114207
Article

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Avoiding Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Non-Smoking Employed Women with Higher Education in Jordan

1 School of Nursing, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid, Postal Code 22110, Jordan 2 Institute for Drug and Alcohol Studies, School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA 3 School of Nursing, Hashemite University, Amman, Postal Code 13133, Jordan 4 General Medical Management, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Postal Code 11355, Egypt 5 Institute of Drug and Alcohol Studies, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA 6 School of Nursing, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 September 2011; in revised form: 25 October 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 9 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
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Abstract: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women’s and children’s exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure among employed Jordanian women with higher education. Methods: A survey was conducted among employed Jordanian women at two universities. A total of 209 women were included in the analysis. Two questionnaires regarding SHS exposure were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices. Results: Most respondents were regularly exposed to SHS in various locations during daily life, even though they were very knowledgeable about the dangers of SHS exposure for women and children. However, the subject’s attitudes and avoidance behavior did not reflect the level of knowledge about SHS risks. The results suggests there is a large discrepancy between SHS exposure, knowledge, attitudes and avoidance behavior among highly educated Jordanian women that is likely influenced by culture and traditional gender roles. Public health initiatives are needed in Jordan to address public policy, institutional practices and to empowerment of women to reduce SHS exposure.
Keywords: secondhand smoke; Jordan; higher education; women; socioeconomic status

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gharaibeh, H.; Haddad, L.; Alzyoud, S.; El-Shahawy, O.; Baker, N.A.; Umlauf, M. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Avoiding Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Non-Smoking Employed Women with Higher Education in Jordan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 4207-4219.

AMA Style

Gharaibeh H, Haddad L, Alzyoud S, El-Shahawy O, Baker NA, Umlauf M. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Avoiding Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Non-Smoking Employed Women with Higher Education in Jordan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(11):4207-4219.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gharaibeh, Huda; Haddad, Linda; Alzyoud, Sukaina; El-Shahawy, Omar; Baker, Nesrin Abu; Umlauf, Mary. 2011. "Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Avoiding Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Non-Smoking Employed Women with Higher Education in Jordan." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 11: 4207-4219.

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