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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(4), 1681-1693; doi:10.3390/ijerph7041681

Determination of para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) in Henna in the United Arab Emirates

1
Environment Management Sector, Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi, UAE
2
Department of Environmental Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 27272, UAE
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2010 / Revised: 4 April 2010 / Accepted: 7 April 2010 / Published: 13 April 2010
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Abstract

Henna is very popular in the United Arab Emirates (UAE); it is part of the culture and traditions. Allergy to natural henna is not usual; however the addition of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) to the natural henna increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis. The objectives of the study were to identify the presence and concentration of PPD in henna available in UAE. Fifteen henna salons were selected randomly from three cities in UAE. Twenty five henna samples were acquired from these selected salons. The presence of PPD in henna samples was determined qualitatively and quantitatively using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The study showed that PPD was present in all of the black henna samples at concentrations ranging between 0.4% and 29.5% and higher than that recommended for hair dyes in most of the black henna samples. The presence of PPD in the black henna increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis among users of black henna and a number of cases have already been reported in UAE. View Full-Text
Keywords: henna; para-phenylenediamine; contact allergy; G6PD deficiency; renal failure; UAE henna; para-phenylenediamine; contact allergy; G6PD deficiency; renal failure; UAE
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Suwaidi, A.; Ahmed, H. Determination of para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) in Henna in the United Arab Emirates. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 1681-1693.

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