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Indoor Air in Beauty Salons and Occupational Health Exposure of Cosmetologists to Chemical Substances
Department of Aesthetics and Cosmetology, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, 12210 Athens, Greece
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Athens University, 11527 Athens, Greece
Terra Nova L.t.d., Environmental Engineering Consultancy, 11527 Athens, Greece
Occupational Health Unit, Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Patras University, 26500 Rio Patras, Greece
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2009 / Accepted: 22 January 2010 / Published: 26 January 2010
Abstract: The indoor environment in four beauty salons located in Athens (Greece) was examined in order to investigate the occupational health exposure of cosmetologists to various chemical products typically used in their work. Chemical substances chosen for investigation were volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, ozone and carbon dioxide. Total VOCs levels measured showed significant variation (100–1,450 μg m-3) depending on the products used and the number of treatments carried out, as well as ventilation. The main VOCs found in the salons were aromatics (toluene, xylene), esters and ketones (ethyl acetate, acetone, etc.) which are used as solvents in various beauty products; terpenes (pinene, limonene, camphor, menthenol) which have a particular odor and others like camphor which have specific properties. Ozone concentrations measured in all salons were quite low (0.1 and 13.3 μg m-3) and formaldehyde concentrations detected were lower than the detection limit of the method in all salons (<0.05 ppm). Carbon dioxide levels ranged between 402 and 1,268 ppm, depending on the number of people present in the salons during measurements and ventilation. Cosmetologists may be exposed to high concentrations of a mixture of volatile organic compounds although these levels could be decreased significantly by following certain practices such as good ventilation of the areas, closing the packages of the beauty products when not in use and finally selecting safer beauty products without strong odor.
Keywords: cosmetologists; beauty salons; nail salons; indoor air; occupational health; chemical exposure; volatile organic compounds; toluene; Greece
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MDPI and ACS Style
Tsigonia, A.; Lagoudi, A.; Chandrinou, S.; Linos, A.; Evlogias, N.; Alexopoulos, E.C. Indoor Air in Beauty Salons and Occupational Health Exposure of Cosmetologists to Chemical Substances. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 314-324.
Tsigonia A, Lagoudi A, Chandrinou S, Linos A, Evlogias N, Alexopoulos EC. Indoor Air in Beauty Salons and Occupational Health Exposure of Cosmetologists to Chemical Substances. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(1):314-324.
Tsigonia, Alexandra; Lagoudi, Argyro; Chandrinou, Stavroula; Linos, Athena; Evlogias, Nikos; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C. 2010. "Indoor Air in Beauty Salons and Occupational Health Exposure of Cosmetologists to Chemical Substances." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 1: 314-324.