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Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia
Department of Public Health, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
Department of Geology, University of Tartu, Vanemuise 46, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2008; Accepted: 12 February 2009 / Published: 16 February 2009
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L.
Keywords: Drinking water; fluoride; exposure; dental fluorosis; Estonia
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MDPI and ACS Style
Indermitte, E.; Saava, A.; Karro, E. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 710-721.
Indermitte E, Saava A, Karro E. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(2):710-721.
Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn. 2009. "Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 2: 710-721.