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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(2), 710-721; doi:10.3390/ijerph6020710
Article

Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

1,* , 1
 and 2
Received: 31 December 2008; Accepted: 12 February 2009 / Published: 16 February 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health: Feature Papers)
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Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L.
Keywords: Drinking water; fluoride; exposure; dental fluorosis; Estonia Drinking water; fluoride; exposure; dental fluorosis; Estonia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Indermitte, E.; Saava, A.; Karro, E. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 710-721.

AMA Style

Indermitte E, Saava A, Karro E. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(2):710-721.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn. 2009. "Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 2: 710-721.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert